|3rd Five Year Plan||
[ Home ]
|<< Back to Index|
The rapid development of the economy over the past decade has placed demands on the transportation system, the magnitude of which is not generally appreciated. The railways, on whom the main burden falls, are handling today 100 per cent more freight traffic and 27 per cent more passenger traffic than they were handling before the commencement of the First Five Year plan, and this despite the fact that at the beginning of the period the railways, as a result of the war, had heavy accumulations of over-aged stock and of track awaiting renewal. During the same period the capacity of the road transport industry has more than doubled and that of the major ports has also increased by about 85 per cent.
The experience of this decade should serve to focus attention on the crucial importance of transport and communications in economic planning. Although in both Plans a sizeable proportion of the total outlay was devoted to their development and this has made possible the considerable expansion in transport capacity that has taken place, nevertheless it is only with difficulty that the transportation system has been able to meet the growing demands. The railways in particular have, throughout most of the period, been working under some measure of strain and at times have been unable to handle all the traffic that has been offered. With the economy expanding at a rapid rate, it is likely that these conditions will persist at least for some years.
EXPERIENCE OF THE FIRST TWO PLANSA BRIEF REVIEW
2. The following Table shows the outlay on the programmes relating to transport and communications in the first two Plans :
1 Outlay on transport and communications programmes in the First
and Second Plans.
Excludes Rs. 15 crores transferred from the plan of the railways to the
plan of the Posts and Telegraphs Department and the power supply authorities
in connection with the railway electrification programme and Rs. 3 -5
crores transferred to the Ministry of Transport and Communications on
account of Vishakhapatnam port.
As compared with the outlay in the First Plan, the provision for transport and communications in the Second Plan was, in absolute-terms, considerably larger, and also somewhat larger in proportion to the total outlay, the share of transport and communications having risen from 27 per cent in the First Plan to 29 per cent in the Second. The progress on the programmes in this sector has, on the whole, been satisfactory.
3. The main task in the field of transportation in the First Five Year Plan was the rehabilitation of over-aged assets which had been subjected to great strain during the preceding decade. Large amounts had to be set apart for rehabilitation of railway rolling stock and for track renewal as also for replacement of over-aged shipping tonnage and equipment of ports and harbours. On account of the heavy replacement demands, the need for expansion could not be fully met in the First Plan. In the Second Plan again a large provision had to be made, particularly in the case of the railways, for rehabilitation of over-aged assets. The emphasis in the Second Plan, however, shifted to the programmes required to augment line capacity on different sections of the railways and to the procurement of additional rolling stock to meet the growing demand for railway transport arising from the increased production in the agricultural and industrial sectors of the economy. The rolling stock on line has been expanded as shown in the Table below. The wagon-holding of the railways at the end of 1960-61 would have stood at a higher figure than 341,041, if the programme for wagon procurement in the Second Plan had not* fallen behind schedule mainly owing to lack of timely supplies of steel.
2 Rolling stock on line as on 31st March, 1951, 1956 and 1961
Over the ten-year period extensive line capacity works have been undertaken by the railways. These include the doubling of about 1300 miles of single track, the electrification of about 800 miles, the remodelling of a large number of exi-it-ing yards and the construction of several new ones. The new lines added to the system have amounted only to about 1200 miles; in addition about 400 miles of lines dismantled during the war were restored during the period. The programme has been largely confined to lines needed either to meet the urgent operational requirements of the railways or in connection with the expansion of the iron and steel and coal industries.
4. There has been, on the other hand, a large extension of the road mileage over the last ten years. It is expected that the mileage of surfaced roads will have increased from 97,500 miles in 1950-51 to 144,000 miles in 1960-61, and that of unsurfaced roads from 151,000 to well over 250,000 miles. A sizeable expansion has also taken place in the capacity of the road transport industry over this period. The number of goods vehicles on the road nearly doubledfrom about 81,000 in 1950-51 to 160,000 in 1960-61. The number of passenger vehicles, i.e., stage carriages, also increased during the period from 34,000 to about 50,000, i.e. by about 45 per cent. The increase in the capacity of the road transport industry has really been substantially more than is indicated by these figures; for the proportion of the heavier types of diesel vehicles to the total number of vehicles on the road has gone up considerably during the period.
5. The expansion in the capacity of the ports and harbours, particularly the major ports, over the period of the first two Plans, has also been substantial. During the First Plan the capacity of the major ports increased from about 20 million tons to 25 million tons. During the Second Plan their capacity is estimated to have increased to about 37 million tons. Several projects were taken up in the Second Plan which are still under execution and, on their completion, the total capacity of the major ports is likely to be over 45 million tons.
6. The tonnage of Indian shipping increased from about 3.9 lakh GRT in 1950-51 to about 4.8 lakh GRT at the end of the First Plan period and is estimated to have increased to about 9 lakh GRT at the end of the Second Five Year Plan. The expansion of tonnage on the coast, however, has been comparatively smallfrom 2.1 lakh GRT in 1950-51, the coastal tonnage is estimated to have expanded only to 2.9 lakh GRT in 1960-61.
7. The capacity of civil air transport has increased considerably since 1953 when the air services were nationalised. The capacity in ton miles offered by the Indian Airlines Corporation went up from about 46 millions in 1953-54 to about 69 millions in 1960-61 and that offered by Air India International over the period from 17 millions to 103 millions.
TRENDS IN RAIL AND ROAD TRAFFIC
8. The following Table shows the trends in traffic carried by railways and road transport over the period :
3 Volume of goods and passenger traffic carried by railways and
*While the figures for railways pertain to the actual traffic carried over the Indian Government railway system those for road transport represent only estimates worked out on certain assumptions regarding utilisation of vehicles quoted in th Preliminary Report of the Committee on Transport Policy and Coordination (1961).
The average lead of freight traffic on the railways has increased during the period from 292 miles to 354 miles. Thus, while in terms of tons originating, the volume of traffic on the railways has increased over the period by about 69 per cent, in terms of ton miles, it has gone up by over 100 per cent. The average lead of passenger traffic has declined during the period from 31.9 miles to 29.9 miles. This is because there has been relatively a much larger increase in suburban traffic than in the inter-city traffic carried by the railways. The figures for suburban passenger traffic are available only from 1951-52 onwards. The volume of suburban traffic increased from 4247 million passenger miles in 1951-52 to 7500 million passenger miles in 1960-61, i.e. by 77 per cent as against a 24 per cent increase in the overall passenger miles during the period.
During this period, the freight traffic in terms of ton miles carried by road transport is estimated to have increased threefold, while passenger traffic in terms of passenger miles carried by stage carriages (excluding taxis and private cars) has more than doubled.
9. In the Second Five Year Plan, the total originating traffic on the railways was expected to increase from 120 million tons in 1955-56 to 181 million tons in 1960-61, i.e. by about 51 per cent. The provision in the Plan was considered inadequate to enable the railways to handle this traffic and it was expected that their capacity would fall short of the needs by about 10 per cent in respect of rolling stock and 5 per cent in respect of line capacity. According to the revised estimate made in 1958, the originating traffic on the railways was expected to increase to 168 million tons in the last year of the Second Five Year Plan and certain adjustments were made in the railway programme to enable them to take steps to acquire additional rolling stock. The volume of traffic actually carried by the railways in 1960-61 is estimated at 154 million tons. On account of a substantial increase in the average lead of traffic, however, the volume of traffic handled by the railways in terms of ton miles in 1960-61 is somewhat more than what was originally provided for in the Second Plan and the railways have recently been working under some strain. Difficulties have been experienced in the movement of coal, particularly from the Bengal-Bihar coalfields. This is partly due to changes in the pattern of coal production and in the plans for supply of raw materials to the steel plants, resulting in longer leads for the railways than were originally anticipated, and partly to a shortfall in some of the railway development programmes, notably wagon procurement.
10. Viewed in retrospect, the experience of the last ten years is instructive from the point of view of future planning. The demand for transport has risen at a substantially faster rate than the increase in national income or the growth of production in any major sector of the economy over the period. While the national income has increased by about 42 per cent, the index of agricultural production has gone up by about 41 per cent and that of industrial production by 94 per cent, the traffic on the railways measured in ton miles has doubled and that on road transport more than doubled over the period. India's experience over the last decade is in line with the experience of several industrially advanced countries in their early stages of growth and these trends may well be expected to continue in the period of the next few Plans.*
COORDINATION OF TRANSPORT : APPROACH IN THE THIRD PLAN
11. The Committee on Transport Policy and Coordination (Neogy Committee), which was constituted in July, 1959, to advise on long-term transportation policy, and against the background of this policy, to define the role of the various means of transport in the next five to ten years, submitted its Preliminary Report to the Planning Commission in February, 1961. In its Report, the Committee has presented detailed factual material pertaining to road-rail coordination and has raised issues considered important from the point of view of formulating a long-term policy for the country. The Committee's final report is not expected to be ready for some time. When its recommendations become available, the programmes for transport in the Third Plan will be reviewed. There are, however, certain general considerations affecting the development of transport over the next few years which can appropriately be mentioned at this stage. In the first place, it must be recognised that during the Third Plan, the railways will inevitably have to continue to carry the bulk of the traffic in heavy goods like coal, iron ore and other materials for the steel plants, etc. As will be explained in a subsequent paragraph, about 88 per cent of the total additional traffic likely to be offered to the railways over the Third Plan period consists of such goods. Heavy investment on the railways is, therefore, unavoidable in order to enable them to handle this traffic.
12. Secondly, while there is a general shortage of transport in the country today, which is likely to continue for some time, this will not necessarily preclude competition between rail and road transport over certain routes and in respect of certain commodities. It is difficult at present to assess what will be the extent of such competition and what impact the expansion programme of the road transport industry will have on the railways and vice versa. The Committee on Transport Policy and Coordination is expected to suggest measures to secure coordination of rail and road transport. It is clear, however, even at this stageindeed the Committee has drawn attention to itthat the railways in preparing detailed plans for increasing line capacity over various sections of the railway system will have to take account of the possible future development of road transport in the regions concerned. In regard to proposals for the construction of new railway lines considerations of coordination have still greater importance. As in the first two Plans, most of the new lines to be opened in the Third Plan are required either to meet the operational needs of the railways or for the movement of basic commodities like coal and mineral ores. But there have been numerous other demands for new lines from all over the country. The Committee on Transport Policy and Coordination has referred to the experience of some of the industrially advanced countries where, in recent years, railways have had to close down a number of unremunerative branch lines. It has also pointed out that the volume of traffic handled on certain new lines constructed or relaid in India during the past ten years is much below the capacity of these lines which thus remains under-utilised. The Committee has raised the question whether any well-defined criteria could be laid down on the basis of which proposals for new lines could be selected from time to time as part of the railway development programme. According to the Committee, "where a choice exists between a railway line and a road, careful examination may be required before a decision is taken.... one approach that could be considered is that in respect of lines which on technical studies are found to be of an unremunerative character, and have to be taken up either on strategic sounds or for other social and political considerations. Government or the parties concerned should subsidise the railways directly."
13. This leads to the third consideration which must be kept in mind. The Indian Railways are at present not merely solvent but are making a sizeable contribution to the resources for the Third Plan. On the other hand, in many countries railways m recent years have become losing concerns and in India too some unfavourable factors affecting the financial prospects of the railways have begun to manifest themselves to which the Committee on Transport Policy has drawn attention. The Committee has also raised questions with regard to the future of the railways' obligations towards the general ex-^enuer In view of the large fresh investments lid: 'n the Indian Railways over the past ten years and proposed for the Third Planthe capital-at-charge of the railways increased from Rs. 834 crores in 1950-51 to Rs. 1559 crores in 1960-61 and it is expected to rise to Rs. 2313 ;rores by 1965-66these matters assume considerable importance. Prima facie, it is desirable that financially the Indian Railways should not take the downward path followed by the railway systems in some other countries.
These and other issues pertaining to coordination of the various means of transportation in the country will be considered further when the final report of the Committee on Transport Policy and Coordination is available.
ALLOTMENT FOR TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION IN THE THIRD PLAN
14. The amount allotted for the programmes relating to transport and communications in the public sector in the Third Plan is Rs. 1486 crores, and is distributed between the various programmes as shown in the Table below :
4 Provision for transport and communications programmes in the
Rs. 350 crores to be contributed by the railways from their depreciation
fund and Rs. 35 crores required by the railways for stores suspense account.
In the case of some of the programmes which have been included in the Plan, the estimated cost is more than the amount proposed to be allotted in the Plan. This is particularly so in the case of railways, roads, major ports and posts and telegraphs. Detailed information in regard to the physical content of the programmes and their estimated cost is given in the paragraphs that follow.
DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES FOR THE THIRD FIVE YEAR PLAN
15. Traffic targets.The railway development programme in the Third Five Year Plan has been formulated on the basis of the originating traffic reaching a figure of about 245 million tons in 1965-66, i.e., the last year of the Third Plan. The volume of traffic is thus expected to increase over that in 1960-61 by 91 million tons, i.e. by about 59 per cent. A broad breakup of this traffic as between various commodities is indicated in the Table below :
5 Estimate of originating goods traffic on the railways in the
Includes capacity of 4 million tons of exports f-om Bailadilla area through Vishakhapatnam to be reached in 1966.
In regard to three basic industries, namely, iron and steel, coal and cement, calculations of transport requirements have been made on the basis of the estimated production and the probable location of the production units. The estimate of traffic in respect of steel and the raw materials of steel corresponds to a production target of 8.3 million tons of finished steel and pig iron which includes about one million tons from the Bokaro steel plant. The estimate in respect of coal at 90 million tons corresponds to a production target of 97 million tons, the difference of 7 million tons being explained by consumption at collieries and the anticipated movement of coal by means of transport other than the railways. The estimate may have to be reviewed when further detailed studies of the likely short distance movements of coal to the washeries have been completed.
As regards traffic in general goods, the estimate provides for 22.5 million tons of railway materials and 11 million tons of iron ore to be moved by rail for export. This last figure includes 4 million tons of iron ore from Bailadilla expected to be reached in 1966. Taking into account the quantity of iron ore to be moved by road to certain minor ports, the total capacity for movement of iron ore for export in 1966 is estimated at about 13 million tons. As regards the rest of the commodities in this group, a careful study was made of the past trends in rail movement with reference to production, imports and exports of some of the more important commodities, such as raw cotton, textiles, jute manufactures, salt, paper, sugar and foodgrains. Altogether, the estimate provides for an additional 11.5 nrllion tons of traffic in respect of commodities other than iron ore for export and the railways own materials, over the existing level of about 64 million tons carried by the railways or an increase of 18 per cent over five years. Over the Second Plan period the traffic in these commodities is estimated to have increased by about 8 million tons, i.e. from 56 million tons in 1955-56 to about 64 million tons in 1960-61.
16. In respect of passenger traffic, the railway programme provides for an increase of 3 per cent per annum in the non-suburban traffic. As regards the suburban traffic, the increase, to judge from past experience, is likely to be of a substantially higher order. The intention is to provide during the peak periods the maximum possible frequency of train services with such marginal increases in line capacity as may be called for.
17. In the nature of things, the traffic requirements five years hence cannot be calculated very precisely. In the first place, the location of some of the important units in industries like coal and fertilisers is still not definitely known, and it is not possible to forecast precisely the pattern of traffic in these commodities. In the case of the coal industry particularly, it is difficult to forsee the exact impact on the average distance of haul of the changes in the pattern of production envisaged in the Third Plan in so far as a substantial part of the production is expected from fields other than the Bengal and Bihar coalfields. Secondly, in respect of some important commodities like iron ore and steel, because of increased production within the country, the pattern of future movement may be very different from what it has been in the recent past. Thirdly, as stated earlier, it is difficult at this stage to define precisely the respective spheres of rail' and road transport in the country, although that part of the additional traffic in the Third Plan in respect of which railways and road transport would appear to be competitive, is comparatively small. Of the total increase of 91 million tons of freight traffic to be carried by the railways by the end of the Third Plan period, 79.5 million tons are accounted for by coal, steel and the raw materials of steel, cement, iron ore for export and the railways' own stores, and only the remaining 11.5 million tons represent an increase in general goods. It has been assumed that 20 per cent of the additional traffic in general goods durin" the Third Plan period will be carried bv back-loading of empty wagons. The provision for rolling stock for this traffic has been correspondingly reduced.
18. The development programmes for coal and certain other important industries have not yet all been worked out in full detail. As their exact nature and requirements become clear, it will be possible to coordinate the railway pro-trramme with them more closely so as to ensure that they move forward in harmony and that their phasing and implementation are carefullv synchronised.
Furthermore, since the overall estimates of traffic can only be treated as tentative at this stage, they will be subject to constant review in the light of the actual trends in traffic from year to year.
Railway development programme.The cost of the railway development
programme as at present formulated, including Rs. 35 crores required on
stores suspense account, is estimated to be of the order of Rs. 1325 crores.
The break-up is as follows :
20. Rolling stock programme.The programme for rolling stock provides for the acquisition of stock needed to cater for the anticipated increase in traffic and also for the replacement of over-aged stock as indicated below :
7 The railway rolling stock programme in the Third Plan
In estimating the requirements for additional stock the operational improvements achieved and planned by the railways and the provision of facilities for mechanised handling of coal and iron ore at the terminals have been taken into account. The turn-round time of wagons in respect of specified bulk movements of coal and other raw materials to the steel plants has been estimated on the basis of. the actual distances of haulage. In the case of all other traffic, the tum-round time of wagons is estimated to be reduced on the broad gauge system from about 11 days as at present, to 9.5 days by the end of the Third Plan period, and in the case of metre gauge system from about 8 days to 6.5 days. This would represent an appreciable improvement in the performance and the railways will make every effort to achieve these targets.
21. In drawing up the rehabilitation programme, the railways have been guided by their actual experience of condemning the over-aged stock on condition basis during the period of the Second Plan. The percentage of over-aged locomotives, coaches and wagons to the total on the line as proposed to be achieved at the end of the Second and the Third Plans is indicated in the Table below :
Table 8 Percentage of over-aged stock to total stock on line at the end of First, Second and Third Plans
22. Workshops.The programme for workshops provides for additional facilities for workshops, sick lines and sheds such as are considered necessary in view of the increased holding of rolling stock on the railways. Provision is also included for the manufacture of diesel locomotives. The capacity for the production of broad guage steam locomotives at Chittaranjan Locomotive Works is considered sufficient to meet the demand for such locomotives during the Third Plan period and will not be increased further. . It is proposed, however, to establish the production of electric locomotives at Chittaranjan in collaboration with the Heavy Electricals Ltd.. Bhopal.
23. Line capacity works.The increase in demand for rail transport capacity measured in terms of tons originating over the period 1960-61 to 1965-66 is expected to be of the order of 60 per cent. The railway development programme provides for doubling over 1600 miles of single track and for other line capacity works like remodelling of yards, opening of crossing stations, and provisions of crossing loops, etc. The main consideration in formulating the line capacity works is to strengthen the trunk routes and the lines on which traffic in heavy C|0mmo-dities like coal and iron ore is required to be moved in increased quantities in future. In formulating programmes for development of line capacity, the railways have taken into account the technological improvements that may be achieved in the Third Plan including the use, to a substantial extent, of new bogie wagons with centre buffer couplers for bulk movement of coal from collieries to important consuming centres where dumps are proposed to be opened for unloading coal in bulk. An important objective underlying the railway development programme is to increase gradually the train loads so as to reduce the investment which will otherwise be necessary on line capacity works. The movement of coal in heavy train loads in the new bogie wagons loaded from overhead bunkers which are to be provided at the major collieries is a basic feature of the railway development programme in the Third Plan.
24. Electrification.The programme includes provision for electrification of about 1100 miles where the replacement of steam traction, is considered necessary for operational reasons having regard to the density of traffic alerady reached and the expected increase in traffic. The pro-gramme provides mainly for the completion of work on those sections which were taken up for electrification in the Second Plan; the majority of these serve the steel plants and the coal mining regions. The only new section which, for the present, is proposed to be taken up during the Third Plan period is that from Mughalsarai to Kanpur. The electrification of this section is required mainly in connection with the future movement of coal.
25. Track renewal.The renewal of track is necessary for safety reasons, and to speed up the movement of trains so as to increase the line capacity. A sizeable programme for track renewal was taken up in the First and the Second Plans. Nevertheless, there will still be arrears to be made good during ths Third Plan period. Provision was made in the Second Plan for complete track renewal of about 8000 miles. The progress on the programme has been satisfactory and only a small shortfall is expected on account of difficulties in the supply of track materials. The programme in the Third Plan provides for over-taking a large part of arrears of track renewal by the end of the Plan period. Provision is made for complete track renewal over about 5000 miles, rail renewals over about 2500 miles, and renewal of sleepers over about 2250 miles. It is also proposed to undertake welding of track joints on an extensive scale during the Third Plan period.
26. Signalling and safety works.The programme for signalling and safety works provides for improvement of signalling and telecommunication facilities 'including the inter-locking of some sections as a safety measure. Centralised traffic control will be provided on the link route leading to Assam. Automatic signalling will be extended on some of the suburban sections and on those busy sections expected to handle heavy traffic in coal and other goods, where such signalling is considered to be absolutely necessary. Moreover, the standards of signalling on trunk routes will be improved to permit speedy movement of trains and improved telecommunication facilities will be provided on important trunk routes, marshalling yards and other important centres of operation.
27. New lines.Provision is made for the construction of about 1200 miles of new lines during the Third Plan period. Besides the new lines carried forward from the Second to the Third Plan, namely, Garhwa Road-Robertsganj, Sambalpur-Titlagarh and Bimlagarh-Kiriburu, the programme provides for the following further new lines : Jhund-KandIa, Madhopur-Kathua, Udaipur-Himmatnagar, Delhi avoiding lines, Diva-Panvel-Kharpada with extension to Uran, Patharkandi-Dharmanagar, Guna-Maksi, Ranchi-Bondamunda, Hindumalkot-Sriganga-nagar, Ghaziabad-Tughlakabad, Bailadilla-Kotavalasa, and the new line to Haldia Port. The programme for new lines in the Third Plan also provides for construction of 200 miles of new lines required in connection with the development of the coal industry. This part of the programme has not yet been finalised.
28. The following new lines are under consideration for inclusion in the railway programme : (i) Mangalore-Hassan, (ii) Bangalore-Salem, (iii) Manamadurai-Virudhunagar, and (iv) the rail link from Sukinda/Daitari mining areas in Orissa to the main line from Kharagpur to Cuttack. The Mangalore-Hassan line would be necessary in connection with the export of iron ore through Mangalore which is proposed to be developed as a major port. The Bangalore-Salem line would serve the requirements of industrial development at Salem. The Manamadurair-Virudhunagar line would provide an alternative link between these two stations and thus relieve the pressure on the existing lines from Mana-madurai to Madurai and from Madurai to Virudhunagar. The ra'l link to mining areas in Orissa is required in connection with export of iron ore through Calcutta, the proposed port at Haldia and the port of Paradip.
Besides the new lines mentioned above, some railway facilities may have to be provided in connection with irrigation, power or mineral projects. The Railway Board, in addition, have proposed certain other new lines for consideration.
29. Bridge works.The programme for bridges is confined mainly to the works carried forward from the Second Five Year Plan; the two major bridges taken up during the Second Plan period are the one over the Brahmaputra in Assam and the second over the Jamuna at Delhi. New bridges are proposed on the Rour-kela-Durg and Uodra-Ratlain sections which were being doubled during the Second Plan period. The programme also provides for rehabilitation of several of the existing bridges during the Plan period.
30. Staff quarters and staff welfare.Of the total amount of Rs. 50 crores proposed under this head, Rs. 35 crores are intended for construction of staff quarters and Rs. 15 crores for provision of staff amenities. It is proposed to provide about 54,000 new quarters in the Third Plan in addition to the quarters that will be constructed as part of composite projects. The programme for amenities provides for expansion of medical facilities and improvement in the staff quarters, drainage, water supply and electrification and recreational facilities in the workers' co-onies, etc. Provision has also been made for schools and hostels under this programme.
31. Users' amenities.Provision for users' amenities has been kept at the level of Second Plan. The programme includes provision for remodelling of stations, retiring rooms, waiting accommodation and refreshment rooms, construction of foot overbridges and improved water supply arrangements, latrines and bathing facii-lities as also provision of electric lights and fans at railway stations. On account of the limited funds available, the schemes in this regard are proposed to be drawn up on austerity standards.
32. Measures to achieve self-sufficiency. The railway development programme in the Third Plan has continued to keep in view the objective of attaining self-sufficiency in regard to the requirements of the railways. There has already been a substantial increase in the capacity for the manufacture of rolling stock during the Second Plan period, and all the steam locomotives, coaches and wagons required by the Indian Railways are being produced within the country. Complete self-sufficiency has also been achieved in respect of mechanical signalling equipment and the manufacture of electric signalling equipment has been started. Capacity is being created to produce within the country the entire supplies of track materials required by the Ind'an Railways. To the extent possible, efforts will be made in the Third Plan period to manufacture diesel and electric locomotives and other items of equipment which are still being imported. The requirements of foreign exchange for the railway development programme in the Third Plan are estimated at Rs. 186 crores, as against Rs. 332 crores estimated to have been actually spent during the Second Plan period.
33. The road development programmes in the first two Plans were formulated in the perspective of the post-war road development plan, known commonly as the 'Nagpur Plan': which was drawn up as far back as 1943. The Plan as applied to the post-partition India envisaged completion of a total length of 123,000 miles of surfaced roads and 208,000 miles of unsurfaced roads. With the programmes undertaken in the First and the Second Plans, the targets envisaged in the Nagpur Plan have been exceeded both in regard to surfaced and unsurfaced roads. By the end of the Second Plan period, the mileage of surfaced roads in the country is expected to be 144,000 and that of unsurfaced roads well above 250,000. Despite this considerable expansion of the road mileage over the last ten years, the road network remains deficient in certain respects, such as unbridged river crossings, substandard surface, narrow carriageway, etc. About 60 per cent of the total mileage consists of earth roads only. Of the total road mileage in the country, about 15,000 miles constitute the National Highways but only about 2300 miles of these have a two lane carriageway; the rest is all one lane. There are also about 1000 miles of National Highways which have only one lane water-bound macadam or low surface instead of cement concrete or bitumen surface. The National Highways as well as the State Highways have a crust thickness of nine to ton inches which, according to technical experts, is inadequate for the present volume and intensity of traffic. Moreover, there are numerous missing bridges on the arterial routes. On the National Highways alone about 80 major bridges remain to be provided at the end of the Second Five Year Plan. Work on 47 of these is in various stages of progress.
34. The Objectives and Priorities of Road Development in the Third Plan.The road development programmes for the Third Plan have been formulated in accordance with the broad objectives laid down in the twenty-year road development plan for the period 1961-81, which has been recently drawn up by the Chief Engineers of the State and the Central Governments. The broad objective of this Plan is that no village in a developed and agricultural area should remain more than four miles from a metalled road and more than U miles from any type of road. The Plan takes into account the special requirements of undeveloped and underdeveloped areas. Under the Plan, the total mileage proposed to be reached at the end of the twenty-year period, i.e., in 1981, is 252,000 miles for surfaced roads and 405,000 miles for unsurfaced roads.
The broad order of priorities envisaged in the twenty-year plan, is that (a) on all arterial routes missing bridges should be provided and the road surfaces improved at least to one lane black topped specification, (b) the main roads in the vicinity of large towns should be widenec to two lanes or more and (c) the major arteria routes should have at least two lane carriageway According to the Plan, the first task in regarc to rural roads should be their improvement tc fair-weather sandard. In regard to these priorities, it may be emphasised that during the pas ten years there has been an increasing demand for district and village roads whose improvemeni benefits directly millions living in the rural areas. This demand has to be kept in view while considering the targets for various types of roads in the Third Plan.
35. The expenditure on road development in the Second Plan is estimated to be about Rs. 224 crores. The cost of the road development programmes included in the Third Plan is about Rs. 324 croresthe programmes in the State sector are estimated to cost about Rs. 244 crores and those in the Central sector Rs. 80 crores. The latter cover both National Highways and roads of inter-State and economic importance.
36. State road programmes.A large part of the road construction programme falls within the purview of the State Governments. The road programmes in the State plans are still being formulated, and it is difficult to say what additions will be made to the road mileage within the amounts that have been allocated in the Plan. It is, however, roughly estimated that it will' be possible to add about 25,000 miles of surfaced roads to the existing network as against about 22,000 miles added during the Second Plan period. The programmes for construction of new roads have to be formulated having regard, on the one hand, to the need for providing road connections to inaccessible areas, and on the other, to the requirements arising from projects in other sectors, such as, irrigation, power and industry. Where necessary, the requirements of road development arising from the reorganisation of States have also to be kept in view. A substantial part of the provision for road programmes in the State plans is intended for improvement of the existing roads with a view to enabling them to meet the requirements of increasing traffic, particularly heavy vehicular traffic; these include widening the roads and upgrading their surfaces and providing missing links and bridges, etc.
37. Central road programmes.The programmes in the Central sector provide mainly for the improvement of the existing National Highways system. Within the amount available, it will be possible only to add one more road to this system, viz., the road from North Salamara to the Brahmaputra bridge with a length of about 100 miles. It may, however, be mentioned that roads totalling about 1200 miles were added to the system quite recently. In the Second Plan, the programme for National Highways provided for the construction of 700 miles of missing links and 40 major bridges, the improvement of 1500 miles of existing sections and the widening of 900 miles to two lane carriageway. All the targets in the National Highways programme have been fully achieved except in respect of missing road links, the work on which is somewhat behind schedule. The more important works completed under the programme include the construction of both the Western and the Eastern tubes of the Jawahar Tunnel on the Jammu-Srinager highway, the construction of the section of the National Highway from Raiganj in West Bengal to Dalkhola in Bihar and widening of the Delhi-Agra road. The more important bridges constructed during the Second Plan period are the rail-cum-road bridge over the Ganga at Mokameh in Bihar, the submersible bridge over the Chambal in Madhya Pradesh, the regulator-cum-road bridge across the Krishna river in Andhra Pradesh, the bridge over the Mahe in Gujarat and the bridge over the Pooniar river on the Madras-Dindigul road. The programme in the Third Plan provides for the completion of a number of important road and bridge works carried forward from the Second Plan. The programme also provides for the improvement of a few sections of the new highways added recently to the National Highways system and for the construction of the Vivekanand bridge by-pass near Calcutta and a few missing links on the existing highways.
38. The programme of inter-State roads and roads of economic importance in the first two Plans provided, among other projects, for the West Coast road, the Passi-Badarpur road, the Pathankot-Udhampur road and the roads required in connection with export of iron ore in Mysore, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh States. Up till 1960-61, about 1000 miles of roads were constructed and about 2300 miles improved under this programme. A number of schemes undertaken during the Second Plan period will have to be completed in the Third Plan. It is estimated that about Rs. 22 crores will be required for this purpose. It may be possible to take up a few new schemes under this programme.
39. Special needs of backward areas.As in the Second Plan, in deciding the provisions to be made for road programme in the Third Plan, special consideration has been given to the needs of the areas which are comparatively backward in regard to means of communications. Thus, in the plans of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, NEFA, NHTA and Tripura, about one-fourth to one-third of the total plan outlay has been allocated for road development. The States in which road development has been given high priority are Assam, Jammu and Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan. Within the States themselves, larger provisions are proposed to be made for the comparatively less developed areas, e.g., the hill areas of Punjab, Uttarkhand, Bundelkhand and other hill areas of Uttar Pradesh, Vidarbha and Marathwada in Maharashtra, Telangana in Andhra Pradesh, the northern districts in Mysore and Kerala, Ladakh and Sonawari areas in Jammu and Kashmir and Tuensane area in KIHTA.
40. Rural road development.Special consideration is being g^ven to road development in rural areas. Specific provisions have been set apart for this purpose in the plans of several States, apart from the provisions available for the development of rural roads under the programmes of local bodies and community development. As a result of an ad hoc enquiry instituted some time back by the Ministry of Transport and Communications, efforts have been made to draw up district plans showing the appropriate alignments of possible future roads in rural areas. Efforts are being made to achieve the desired coordination between the various agencies responsible for road development in rural areas and to secure in an increasing measure contribution from the people towards the construction of village roads.
41. Road research.In the Third Plan, a certain portion of the allotment for road development programmes is being set apart for research. Altogether, Rs. 2 crores may be available for research programmes in the State Plans, which will be utilised for field research as distinct from laboratory research. Research on modern techniques of road construction is being done by the Central and State road research laboratories with a view primarily to achieving economies in the cost of construction. The programme in the Third Five Year Plan provides for experiments in road construction on the basis of new specifications and techniques. In order to facilitate a proper assessment of the results of the research already carried out and help select schemes for further research, it is proposed to constitute a Central Assessment Committee consisting of representatives of the various Central and State Government organisations and of certain non-governmental organisations connected with road development and road research activities. The field experiments on new techniques in the Third Five Year Plan will be carried out following the recommendations of this Committee.
42. During the last two decades, there has been a noticeable expansion of motor transport in the country, particularly in the case of goods vehicles. The number of goods vehicles in undivided India (excluding princely States) increased from 12,397 in 1938-39 to 40,107 in 1946-47. After the partition of the country, the number of goods vehicles in the Indian Union has almost doubled in a period of ten years from about 73,000 in 1948-49 the number has gone up to about 160,000 in 1960-61. As regards passenger vehicles, their number went down during the early years of the war but increased subsequently so that the total number in 1946-47 was almost the same as in 1938-39. From 1948-49 onwards the number of these vehicles has been increasing steadiiy. It rose from 27,275 in 1948-49 to about 50,000 in 1960-61an increase of about 85 per cent.
43. As explained earlier, the increase in the volume of the traffic carried by road transport has in recent years been proportionately a good deal more than the increase in the number of vehicles because there has been a significant increase in the capacity of vehicles over the period. Had the targets for the manufacture of vehicles laid down in the Second Plan been realised fully, the increase in the number of vehicles and the capacity of the road transport industry would have been greater still. As against the target of 40,000 vehicles set in the Second Plan, the actual production in 1960-61 is expected to bo of the order of 30,000. The insufficient supply of new vehicles, particularly during the last few years, which is attributable to the shortage of foreign exchange, is the principal factor which has stood in the way of more rapid expansion of road transport during the period. Several measures were taken in recent years to liberalise the licensing policies for road transport. Efforts are also being made to assist the road transport industry by simplification of, the various taxes imposed on the industry. In particular, the Ministry of Transport and Communications has requested the State Governments to consolidate all the existing taxes into a single levy to be collected by one agency as far as possible, and to consider abolishing double taxation of road transport services on inter-State routes.
44. The expansion of commercial road transport in the Third Plan will depend largely on the manufacturing capacity of the automobile industry. The targets for production of vehicles recommended by the Ad hoc Committee on the Automobile Industry (1960) have been accepted by Government for the purpose of formulating the manufacturing programme in the Third Plan. The production target for commercial vehicles in 1965-66 is 60,000, which is twice the level of production in 1960-61. It is roughly estimated that the total number of commercial vehicles will increase from about 200,000 in 1960-61 to 365,000 in 1965-66, i.e. an increase of about 82 per cent. The number of goods vehicles will increase over the period from about 160,000 to 285,000 and the number of stage carriages from about 50,000 to 80,000. According to the calculations presented in the Preliminary Report of the Committee on Transport Policy and Coordination, the increase in freight traffic by road is expected roughly to be of the order of 120 per cent over five years, i.e. from about 10,600 million ton miles in 1960-61 to 23,350 million ton miles in 1965-66.
45. The expansion programmes of the nationalised road transport undertakings in the States, wh'ch at present provide largely passenger services, are estimated to cost Rs. 26 crores in the Third Plan. It is expected that about 7500 vehicles will be added to the fleets of the nationalised undertakings during the period of the Plan as compared with about 5000 vehicles added during the Second Plan period. The share of the nationalised undertakings in the total passenger services by road is expected to remain unchanged at the existing level of about 30 per cent. The Planning Commission had some time back advised the State Governments to set up corporations under the Road Transport Corporations Act, 1950, to manage the nationalised road transport undertakings in which the railways, and, if possible, the private operators should participate. The principal reason underlying this policy decision was the need to ensure that the State Government undertakings, which are likely to grow into large mono^-polies in future do not come into unfettered competition with the railways, which are a Central Government monopoly. The corporation form of management provides some safeguard against undue competition between them. The Committee on Transport Policy and Coordination in its preliminary report has unanimously endorsed this policy. Corporations have already been set up in several States and it is hoped that the remaining States will also set up corporations as early as possible. Provision has been made in the Plan for the railways to contribute their share-to the expansion programme of the nationalised road transport undertakings in the States,
46. In view of the great pressure on railway transport and the need for coordinated development of various forms of transport, in the course of the Third Plan, it may be necessary for the public sector to extend its activities in the field of transport of goods by road. A number of quest''ons, such as the forms of organisation and the scope of the programme, will be cons'dered further in the light of the recommendations of the Committee on Transport Policy and Coordination and in consultation with the State Governments.
INLAND WATER TRANSPORT
47. Inland waterways play an important role in the north east region of the country comprising the States of Assam, West Bengal and Bihar. Of the existing traffic of over 2.5 million tons between Assam and Calcutta, about one half is carried by river and the remaining half is shared between the railways and other means of transport. In the south, inland water transport has a significant part to p^y in the State of Kerala. The waterways in Kerala connect several minor ports and the major port of Coch''n and a number of industries are situated close to them. In the deltaic region of Orissa, again, inland waterways provide an important means of communication; the principal navigation canals serving the reeion are the Kendrapara and TaMani^a Canals and the Or'ssa Coast Canal. Inland water transport operates in a limited way in the States of Andhra Pradesh and Madras also. The problems of inland water transport have been studied in detail by the Inland Water Transport Committee which submitted its report to the Ministry of Transport and Communications in 1959. The Committee has made longterm proposals for the development of inland waterways all over the country. The programme for the Third Five Year Plan has been formulated in the light of the recommendations of the Committee. The progress on programmes in this sector in the first two Plans has been slow, mainly because of the long time required in the formulation of schemes and the designing of the craft, etc. As against less than Rs. 1 crores spent over the period of the first two Plans, the cost of the programmes included in the Third Plan is Rs. 7.5 crores, which includes Rs. 6.0 crores in the Central sector and Rs. 1.5 crores in the State plans.
48. An important step taken for the development of inland water transport during the First Five Year Plan was the setting up of the Ganga Brahmaputra Boarda joint venture of the Central Government and the State Governments of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal and Assam. The Board was assigned the task of coordinating the activities of the participating Governments in regard to the development of water transport on the Ganga and Brahmaputra System and of administering pilot projects for testing the feasibility of operating modern craft on shallow waterways. The Board at present operates (a) the country boat towing service between Chapra and Burhaj, a distance of 94 miles, and (b) a weekly service between Patna and Buxar (93 miles) and Patna and Rajmahal (203 miles) with pusher tugs and steel barges. These services are of an experimental character. The Board has also been conducting topographical and hydro-graphical surveys for collecting data f.or the projects to be started in future. During the Second Plan period, Government agreed to give river conservancy grants to the Joint Steamer Companies and also to advance them a loan of Rs. 2 crores to enable them to replace their fleet. These companies carry the bulk of the water borne traffic between Assam and the rest of India. The other important projects undertaken in the Second Five Year Plan were in the southern region. In Kerala, a project to extend the West Coast Canal from Badagara to Mahe was taken up and the State Government set up a corporation in April. 1958, to take over from the private operators the passenger motor boats plying between Ouilon and Emakulama distance of about 90 miles. Provision was made for experimental dredging of the Buckingham Canal in Andhra Pradesh and Madras.
49. The programme at the Centre in the Third Plan provides for loan assistance to the Jo'"nt Steamer Companies already agreed to and for the completion of an inland oort a* Pa"d'i and of the navigational works in the DVC canal already undertaken in the Second Five Year Plan. Important among new schemes included in the programme are (i) a pilot towing project to be undertaken by the Ganga Brahmaputra Board in Sunderbans, (ii) setting up of a central organisation to advise on matters relating to inland water transport, (iii) purchase of dredgers and launches for Sunderbans and Brahmaputra, (iv) improvement of the foreshores at Gauhati, and (v) training establishments. In the State sector, substantial provisions have been made, among other schemes, for the improvement and extension of the West Coast Canal in Kerala, the improvement of Taldanda and Kendrapara Canals in Orissa in connection particularly with export of iron ore through Paradip, and for the development of navigational facilities in the Rajasthan Canal.
50. A substantial addition has been made in the shipping tonnage during the first two P'an periods and despite foreign exchange difficulties the overall target of 9 lakh GRT set for the end of the Second Plan is likely to be fully achieved. Indian ships are estimated at present to carry 8 to 9 per cent of India's overseas trade. The following figures indicate the tonnage position for the coastal and the overseas trades at the end of the First and the Second Plan periods :
9 Shipping tonnage at the end of First Second Plans
The targets for overseas and coastal shipping by the end of the Second Five Year Plan were 4.9 and 4.1 lakh GRT respectively. The actual achievement in respect of overseas tonnage has exceeded the target, while in the case of coastal shipping there is a substantial shortfall. A sum of Rs. 18.7 crores was spent on the shipping programme in the First Plan and the expenditure in the Second Plan is estimated at Rs. 52.7 crores. An important step taken during the Second Plan period has been the establishment of a non-lapsing shipping deve'opment fund for grant of loans to shipping companies for the acquisition of tonnage.
51. A provision of Rs. 55 crores has been made for shipping in the Third Plan. In addition, a sum of Rs. 4 crores is likely to be available from the Shipping Development Fund. The shipping companies are expected to contribute Rs. 7 crores from their own resources. A little more than one ha^f of the total amoun* is proposed to be spent in the private sector and the balance on the programmes of the tvo ^"--pora-tions in the public sector, namely the Eastern Shipping Corporation and the Western Shipping Corporation. It is expected that about 57 ships with a tonnage of 375,000 GRT will be acquired during the Plan period. Of the total tonnage, about 194,000 GRT are estimated to be required for replacement of overaged ships and the remaining 181,000 GRT win be available for addition to the existing tonnage. This will increase the total tonnage available to 1.1 million GRT. About 216,000 GRT will be acquired in the private sector and the remaining 159,000 in the public sector.
52. The following Table gives the break-up of the tonnage proposed to be acquired during the Third Plan between coastal and overseas trades, both in the private and the public sectors:
Table 10 The shipping tonnage to be acquired in the Third Plan
Of the total tonnage, 132,500 GRT are required for the coastal trade and the remaining 242,000 GRT for the overseas trade. A major part of the programme for coastal shipping relates to the replacement of over-aged ships. Of the total of 32,500 GRT proposed to be added to the coastal tonnage, 25,000 GRT will consist of small coastal ships for general cargo service, and the remaining 7500 GRT are accounted for by one coastal tanker. As regards overseas trade, provision is made for the replacement of 93,600 GRT of over-aged ships and for the addition of about 148,000 GRT to the existing tonnage. Of the additional tonnage, 53,000 GRT are accounted for by tankers. It is proposed to acquire three tankers, two for import of crude petroleum and one for import of petroleum products.
53. It is recognised that the expansion of shipping has a high priority because it will enable savings to be effected in the foreign exchange expenditure which is at present being incurred on the carriage of the country's overseas trade. The National Shipping Board had recommended a target of 14.2 lakh GRT to be reached by 1965-66. The development programme for shipping, however, depends largely on the availability of foreign aid for this purpose, and of necessity has to be modest. As regards coastal shipping, the Committee on Transport Policy and Coordination is expected, in its final report, to make recommendations on the future role of coastal shipping vis-a-vis the railways. Attempts arc meanwhile being made to use the available tonnage to the maximum extent for carrying bulk commodities, particularly coal, with a view to affording relief to the railways.
PORTS AND HARBOURS
54. Major ports.The principal objectives of the development programmes for major ports in the First Plan were to rehabilitate and modernise the facilities at the existing ports, especially those which had suffered heavy wear and tear during the war, and to provide a major port at Kandia to handle the traffic which was previously catered for by Karachi. Due to delays in the finalisation of the details of the programme, the progress during the First Plan was slow. The capacity of major ports increased during the period from 20 million tons to 25 million tons. The traffic handled in the last year of the Plan was 24 million tons. The Second Plan aimed at the completion of the projects commenced during the First Plan and the provision of additional berthing capacity at the ports of Calcutta, Madras, Vishakhapatnam and Cochin. In the first two years of the Plan, there was severe congestion at the ports on account of large-scale imports of heavy cargo, and several measures were taken to increase the capacity of major ports and to enable them to handle the increased traffic. Due to the deteriorating draft conditions in the river Hooghly, special programmes were taken up at the Calcutta port providing for expensive river training works and the dredging of the difficult bars. There has. been a substantial increase in the capacity of the major ports and the total traffic handled by them in 1960-61 is estimated at about 33 million tons.
55. The programme in the Third Five Year Plan provides mainly for the completion of the projects which are already underway and except for Bombay port, where provision is made for the modernisation and expansion of the docks, no major scheme has been included which may be expected to make any large-scale addition to the capacity of the existing ports. The main objective underlying the schemes in respect of the existing major ports is to maintain and improve the facilities already available. It is expected that with the completion of the schemes, most of which have already been commenced in the Second Plan, the capacity of the major ports will be 49 million tons. This will be sufficient to handle the Quantum of traffic expected by the end of the Third Plan period.
56. Two important schemes have been included in the programme with a view to the maintenance and preservation of Calcutta Port, These are : (a) the construction of an ancillary port at Hald'a, and (b) the construction of a barrage on the river Ganga at Farakka. The port at Haldia will be supplementary to the port of Calcutta and will be located about 56 miles downstream from it. It is proposed to provide facilities at the port for handling bulk cargo such as coal, iron ore and foodgrains, and also lor lightening of general cargo vessels. The general cargo will continue to be handled at Calcutta. The necessary technical investigations are now being conducted in order to finalise the details of the project. The cost of construction of the port, including a dock system with four berths, is estimated to be roughly of the order of Rs. 25 crores. A provision of Rs. 7 crores has been made for the project in the Third Five Year Plan and a substantial part of the work on it is expected to be carried forward to the Fourth Plan period. The port is proposed to be connected by a direct rail link to the main line from Calcutta to Kharagpur.
57. As regards the barrage on the Ganga, this is considered vital for the improvement of the draft conditions in the river Hooghly and for the preservation of the Calcutta port. Owing to lack of sufficient headwater supply to flush the silt, there has been a steady and progressive deterioration in the regime of the Hooghly. Apart from its adverse effects on the navigability of the river, the gradual choking of the channel has led, on the one hand, to an increase in the frequency of the bore tides in the Hooghly and, on the other, to a steady rise in the salinity of its waters. Intensive dredging operations which were found to be necessary to keep the port of Calcutta open for navigation have proved inadequate. The construction of a barrage across the Ganga at Farakka will improve the headwater supply in the Hooghly and will provide a lasting solution to the problem. The other incidental benefits from the barrage will be improvement of the water supply in Calcutta and peripheral industrial towns, the improvement in communications between north and south Bengal and the reduction in the length of the inland water transport route between Assam and West Bengal. The total cost of the project is estimated at Rs. 56 crores and the outlay required in the Third Five Year Plan, on the basis of a nine-year programme for completion of the project, is estimated at Rs. 25 crores.
58. At Calcutta, in addition to the supplementary port at Haldia and the barrage at Farakka, provision has been made for training works for improving the Balari Channel and for more dredgers and other floating equipment. These schemes are estimated to cost Rs. 28 crores.
The programme for the Bombay port includes schemes costing about Rs. 26 crores. The more important among these are: dock modernisation scheme, dredging of the main harbour channel, expansion of the Ballard Pier and construction of a passenger terminal building at the Pier, electrification of cranes in the Alexandra Docks and a labour housina scheme. The dock modernisation scheme is intended to provide additional deep draft berths in the port which are considered necessary in view of the 'great increase in the number of larger vessels visaing the port in recent years. The schemes pertaining to Ballard Pier are considered essential to meet the requirements of passenger traffic at the port. The passenger terminal building needs to be replaced immediately because the foundations of the existing building are rapidly deteriorating.
The programme for the Madras port is estimated to cost about Rs. 7 crores and apart from the completion of the projects which are already underway, provides for additional ore and coal yards and mechanical equipment for handling iron ore.
The programme for Vishakhapatnam estimated to cost Rs. 9 crores provides for the completion of the additional four-berth scheme, and the ore loading installations at the port the work on which was started in the Second Five Year Plan. The scheme is intended to enable the port to handle an additional 2 million tons per annum of iron ore from 1964 onwards for export to Japan and further additional 4 million tons per annum from 1966 onwards.
For Kandla provision is made for the completion of two additional berths procurement of a dredger, expansion of the township and schemes for augmenting the water supply at the port.
The provision for Cochin is intended mainly for the completion of schemes carried forward from the Second Plan.
59. The programme for the development of ports includes two projects for the upgrading of two minor ports into all-weather ports, viz., Tu-ticorin and Mangalore. The development of an all-weather alongside port at Tuticorin is considered necessary in order to enable the port to handle the existing traffic efficiently and to provide capacity for increases in traffic. The exact scope of the project will depend upon the volume of traffic which the port is expected to handle in future. A substantial part of the present traffic consists of commodities which enter into the coastal trade and about this it will be possible to take a long-run view only after the report of the Committee on Transport Policy and Coordination is available.
Mangalore is proposed to be developed primarily to handle about 2 million tons of iron ore expected to be exported from Chitaldrug and other mining areas in the vicinity of the port. Technical investigations in connection with the development of the port are in progress.
60. The cost of the port development programmes is estimated to be of the order of Rs. 115 crores. This includes Rs. 80 crores for the programmes of the major ports, Rs. 25 crores for the barrage at Farakka and Rs. 10 crores for the development of new major ports at Mangalore and Tuticorin.
61. Minor ports.The minor ports of India, which exceed 150 in number, are estimated to handle about 6 million tons of traffic every year. Schemes costing about R? 2.4 crores for minor ports were included in the First Five Year Plan hut the actual expenditure did not exceed Rs. 1.5 crores. The provision for minor ports in the Second Five Year Plan was Rs. 5 crores and is estimated to have been almost fully utilised. The programme included in the Third Five Year Plan is estimated to cost Rs. 15 crores.
62. The Intermediate Ports Development Committee (1960), after a detailed survey of the more important of the minor ports, known as the 'intermediate ports', has recommended development schemes for the next five to ten years. The programme in the Third Five Year Plan has been formulated on the basis of the recommendations of the Committee. Of the more important schemes included in the programme, mention may be made of the proposal to develop an intermediate port at Paradip to handle about 5 lakh tons of iron ore from the Sukinda-Daitari areas. Provision is also being made for the development of the transport facilities needed to move iron ore from the mining areas to the port. Neendakara (Kerala) is also proposed to be developed as an intermediate port and a deep draft berth is to be provided at Karwar, if after investigations this is found technically feasible, in order to handle export of iron ore. Other schemes included in the programme are extension of groynes and acquisition of a dredger at Kakinada, stabilisation of the channel at Masu-lipatam, provision of groynes and a pier at Cuddalore, raising and widening the low level jetty at Ratnagiri, construction of a wharf at Redi, improvement of the lock gate at Bhav-nagar, development of additional lighterage capacity at Porbandar and development of an oil tanker berth at Okha. In the Central sector, provision has been made for a survey-cum-dred -ger pool. Arrangements have already been made to acquire two dredgers and six survey launches under this programme. One more dredger will be added to the pool in the Third Five Year Plan.
The capacity of all the minor ports is estimated 10 increase to about 9 million tons on completion of the schemes included in the Third Plan.
63. Of the provision of Rs. 6 crores made for the development of lighthouses and lightships, a sum of Rs. 2.4 crores will be required for completion of the works carried forward from the Second Plan and the remaining Rs. 3.6 crores will be available for new works. During the Second Plan period, it has been possible to establish 72 new lighthouses and other aids to navigation including radio beacons, very high frequency radio transmission sets and lighted and unlighted buoys. Work on the construction and improvement of 50 lighthouses and other aids to navigation like radars, radio beacons, fog signals and lightbuoys is in progress. In addition work is proceeding in connection with the establishment of two decca navigator chains and the lighthouse workshop and laboratory at Calcutta. Among the new schemes included in the Third Plan is one for a lighthouse tender estimated to cost Rs. 140 lakhs.
CIVIL AIR TRANSPORT
64. Civil aviation.Civil aviation has made rapid progress since partition. Between 1947 and the commencement of the First Plan, about Rs. 6.6 crores were spent on works relating to civil aviation. During the period of the first two Plans the expenditure incurred amounted to about Rs. 24 crores. The programme in the First Plan aimed mainly at making good the deficiencies in aerodromes, communication facilities, equipment, etc. The Second Plan provided for the development of facilities to meet the growing needs of domestic and international traffic and in particular the new demands which had arisen from recent technical advances and from Indias obligations under the Convention on International Civil Aviation to provide facilities at aerodromes in conformity with the standards laid down by the Convention. The Civil Aviation Department at present maintains 85 aerodromes of which four were added in the Second Plan. Four more aerodromes are well advanced towards completion. In the Third Plan, it is proposed to spend about Rs. 25.5 crores on civil aviation which is distributed between various categories of schemes as shown in the Table below. The Table also shows the expenditure incurred on these schemes under the First and the Second Five Year Plans.
11 Expenditure in the first two Plans and provision in the Third
Plan for Civil Aviation
65. Extensive development works were undertaken in the Second Five Year Plan at Bombay (Santa Cruz), Calcutta (Dum Dum) and Delhi (Palam) airports. These works which were undertaken primarily to facilitate the flights of jet aircraft will be completed during the Third Plan period. Priority will be given in the Third Five Year Plan to the programmes for extension of the existing runways, wherever necessary, including the development of an air field at Madras for jet operations on the Malaya-Indonesia-Australia route, and for strengthening and extending the runways at Lucknow, Gaya and Ah-medabad aerodromes which are alternates for the international airports. Provision is made in addition for construction of taxi tracks, aprons, terminal and other technical buildings, etc. The programme also provides for permanent ground lighting facilities at a number of aerodromes. A sum of Rs. 65 lakhs, out of the total provision for works at aerodromes, has been set apart for the construction of new aerodromes, new air-strips for Flying and Gliding Clubs and for air-strips at places of tourist importance. In addition, about Rs. 20 lakhs have been provided in the programme for the development of tourism for construction of aerodromes and airstrips to develop tourist traffic. The povision for civil aviation also includes a provision of Rs. 2 crores for undertaking, if necessary, the construction of an entirely new airport at Delhi. The total cost of this project is estimated to be of the order of Rs. 12 crores.
66. The programme in respect of aeronautical telecommunication services includes schemes for improved types of navigational aids at selected aerodromes so as to provide all-weather aid to fast moving high altitude aircraft, and for strengthening the facilities for terminal control communications and dissemination of meteorological information. The training programme provides for the purchase of aircraft and other equipment for the training centre at Allahabad, and for the establishment of 15 new flying clubs as against 5 clubs added during the Second Plan period.
67. Air corporations.There has been a rapid expansion of the activities of the air corporations since they were constituted in 1953. The figures in the following Table indicate the increase in their capacity and in the volume of traffic carried by them during the period from 1953-54 to 1959-60.
12 Traffic carried by air corporations during 1953-54 and 1959-60
The capacity offered by the Air India International is estimated to have increased further to about 103.2 million ton miles in 1960-61.
68. Air India International started with a fleet of four Constellations. Five Super-Constellations were purcaased in the First Plan, and five more in the Second Plan but one was lost in an accident in 1959. The Corporation also purchased three Boeing 707 jet aircraft during the Second Plan and ordered one more Boeing to be delivered early in the Third Plan period. The operating fleet of the Corporation at present consists of three Boeings and nine Super-Constellations. The programme in the Third Plan provides for the purchase of four additional jet aircraft of which two have already been ordered by the Corporation. The total provision made for the Corporation in the Plan is Rs. 14.5 crores, of which Rs. 13.5 crores will be required for the purchase of aircraft. The remaining Rs. 1 crore is intended for expansion of workshops and hangars, purchase of equipment, etc. It is proposed to establish a jet engine overhaul base at Bombay early in Third Plan period.
69. The Indian Airlines Corporation had a fleet of 92 aircraft at the beginning of the Second Five Year Plan consisting of 66 Dakotas, 12 Vikings, 6 Skymasters and 8 Herons, The Corporation purchased 10 Viscounts during the Second Plan which added considerably to its capacity. The entire fleet of Vikings and Heron? was, however, withdrawn from service during the period. The Corporation also ordered during the Second Plan period 5 Fokker Friendship aircraft for replacement of Dakotas. The operating fleet of the Corporation at the end of 1960-61 consisted of 54 Dakotas, 5 Skymasters and 10 Viscounts. There has been one very welcome development during the Second Plan periodthe introduction of the Viscount aircraft has led to a substantial increase in the revenue and a decrease in the unit cost of operation as a result of which during the year 1959-60 the Corporation has been able to break-even for the first time. The programme in the Third Five Year Plan provides for the purchase of four Viscounts and of 25 modem aircraft to replace Dakotas. It is proposed to retain about ten Dakotas in service at the end of the Third Five Year Plan ; these will be utilised for freight services. A total provision of Rs. 15 crores has been made in the Third Plan for the Corporation, of which Rs. 10 crores are estimated to be required for the purchase of medium-sized aircraft for replacement of Dakotas and Rs. 1 crore for 4 additional second hand Viscounts. A sum of Rs. 2.8 crores has been provided for construction of staff quarters at the headquarters office and other buildings required by the Corporation. The remaining amount of Rs. 1.5 crores is required for purchase of workshop equipment, vehicles and for training facilities for the crew for new types of aircraft.
70. Tourism has assumed increasing importance during recent years. The number of foreign tourists visiting India is estimated to have increased about six times over the last decadefrom about 20,000 in 1951 to 123,000 in 1960, The earnings of foreign exchange from tourism are estimated to have increased from about Rs. 4 crores in 1950 to about Rs. 20 crores in 1960. The programme for the development of tourism included in the Second Five Year Plan aimed mainly at providing accommodation, transport and recreational facilities at important tourist centres. Provision was also made for the construction of road links to these centres. Considerable time was taken in finalising the schemes in the Second Five Year Plan. They were mostly in the nature of building projects and the progress had been rather slow except in Jammu and Kashmir where most of the provision of about Rs. 1 crore had been utilised.
71. In the Third Plan about Rs. 8 crores are provided for the development of tourism. Slightly less than one half of this amount will be available for schemes to be taken up by the Central Department of Tourism and for grants to the State Governments and the remaining amount will be spent as part of the State plans. The schemes in the Central sector provide for facilities at centres which are important from the point of view of foreign tourism while those in the State plans are intended mainly for home tourism. As in the Second Plan, the programme in the Third Plan concentrates largely on provision of facilities or accommodation and transport. Provision has been made for winter sports at Gulmarg in Kashmir. The expansion of the hotel industry in the country has not been commensurate with the growing needs of tourism. Measures are under consideration for assisting the industry with loans for the construction of new hotels and improvement or expansion of existing ones.
72. The expansion of industrial and commercial activity in the past ten years has led to a growing demand for communication facilities, the growth of which is an integral element in the economic and technological advance of the country. The communication services include postal, telegraph and telephone services, overseas communications and meteorology. Over the period of the first two Plans, the number of postal articles handled in the country increased by about 80 per cent, i.e. from 2270 million to about 4054 million. The number of telegrams increased by about 43 per cent, i.e. from 27.9 million in 1950-51 to 40 million in 1960-61. The number of trunk calls handled by the Telephone Department increased about fivefold, i.e. from about 7.1 million in 1950-51 to about 34 million in 1960-61. These figures will give an indication of the growing demands placed on the Posts and Telegraphs Department as a result of the economic growth of the country. Despite a substantial expansion in their capacity, the posts and telegraphs services as also the other communication services in the country have been working under a measure of strain during recent years. The following Table shows the provision and expenditure in the First and the Second Plans and the cost of the approved programme in the Third Plan for the various departments under the Department of Communications :
13 Outlay on communications
POSTS AND TELEGRAPHS
73. The cost of the programmes of the Posts and Telegraphs Department included in the Third Five Year Plan is estimated at Rs. 77.6 crores. This has the following break up :
14 Cost of the programme of the Posts and Telegraphs Department
in the Third Plan
74. Telephone services.The number of telephones in the country increased from 168,000 in 1950-51 to 280,000 in 1955-56 and further to 460,000 in 1960-61. Thus as against about 112,000 telephones added during the First Plan, the addition during the Second Plan period comes to 180,000. The programme in the Third Five Year Plan provides for about 200,000 new direct telephone connections and in addition for conversion of 50,000 manual lines into auto lines. Automatic exchanges will be installed in about 45 towns and the existing auto exchanges in 32 towns will be expanded. A large number of the additional telephone connections proposed to be provided are six digit telephones which will require installation of additional exchange equipment.
The programme for trunk telephones provides for the installation of ten trunk automatic exchanges and a number of additional manual trunk exchanges and about 2000 public call offices during the Plan period. It is proposed to meet the heavy demand for trunk telephones between important stations by introducing subscriber-to-subscriber dialling service. The programme aims at extension of the trunk network to all the administrative headquarters such as districts, sub-divisions and tehsils. Provision has been made for the completion of the project for laying coaxial cables between Delhi and Calcutta and Delhi and Bombay which was taken up in the Second Five Year Plan. The programme also provides for coaxial cables being laid between Bombay, Madras and Coimbatore and between Bombay and Nagpur and Delhi and Amritsar.
75. Telegraph services.The number of telegraph offices in the country increased from 3600 in 1950-51 to 5100 in 1955-56 and further to 6450 in 1960-61. The programme for the Third Plan provides for the addition of 2000 telegraph offices during the Plan period. The programme also aims at reducing the time interval between the booking of an ordinary telegram and its delivery at its destination point to the minimum possible. This has necessitated the installation on an extensive scale of modern devices like teleprinters and tape-relay systems to avoid repeated handling of telegrams and the gradual replacement of morse working.
76. Postal services.The number of post offices in the country increased from 36,000 in 1950-51 to 55,000 in 1955-56 and to 77,000 in 1960-61. The increase expected in the Third Five Year Plan is of the order of 17,000. The objective in the First Five Year Plan was to serve, besides all administrative headquarters such as tehsils, talukas and thanas, every group of villages located within a radius of two miles and having a total population of 2000 provided the annual loss involved was not more than Rs. 750 and that there was no post office within a distance of three miles. The conditions for opening post offices in villages were relaxed during the Second Plan period and the programme aimed at providing post offices to each group of villages within a radius of two miles and having a population of 2000. In-addition, provision was made to provide post offices at every headquarters of national extension and community project blocks provided it fulfilled the general conditions as to the annual loss and distance from an existing post office. In 1959, the conditions for opening post offices were further liberalised for the headquarters of the community project and the national extension service blocks and for places where there were schools run by district boards, local boards or schools approved by the State Governments. The distance condition for opening post offices at all such places was reduced from three miles to two miles. Further liberalisation of the conditions for opening up new post offices will be considered, if necessary, during the period of the Third Plan.
77. Other schemes.The programme of the Posts and Telegraphs Department also provides for expansion of the workshops at Calcutta and Jabalpur and for the shifting 01' the Bombay workshop to a new site. Provision has also been made for the construction of 5000 staff quarters and for office buildings required by the Department during the Plan period.
The Department is required to provide telecommunication facilities in connection with the railway electrification programme. The cost of these facilities is estimated at Rs. 11 crores.
78. A provision of Rs. 1.4 crores has been made in the Third Plan for a factory for the manufacture of teleprinters. A separate company namely, Hindustan Teleprinters Ltd. was constituted with Italian collaboration in Deqember, 1960, with an authorised capital of Rs. 3 crores. The factory will start with the production of about 170 teleprinters in 1961, Its capacity will be stepped up gradually, and production is expected to reach the target of over 1000 machines a year by 1963-64. The indigenous content of the machines will also be gradually increased to 100 per cent over a period of four to five years.
INDIAN TELEPHONE INDUSTRIES
79. Indian Telephone Industries have been able to achieve a substantial increase in their capacity during the Second Plan period. The production of exchange lines increased from about 30,000 at the commencement of the Second Plan to 78,000 in 1960-61 and that of telephone instruments during the same period from about 50,000 to 120,000. The factory produced, in addition, in 1960-61 about Rs. 64 lakhs worth of transmission equipment. However, having regard to the target set for tne expansion of the telephone system in the country in the Third Plan, the capacity of the factory is considered inadequate particularly in regard to the manufacture of transmission equipment. Indian Telephone Industries have a development programme in the Third Plan estimated to cost Rs. 2.8 crores. This will enable them to produce by the end of the Third Plan period about 100,000 exqhange lines and about 160,000 telephone instruments per annum. A substantial expansion in the capacity in respect of transmission equipment is also envisaged to be achieved during the Plan period.
OVERSEAS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICE
80. At the commencement of the First Plan, countries with which India was connected by direct radio telegraph, telephone and photo services numbered 7, 2 and 2 respectively. As a result of the expansion programmes undertaken in the first two Plans, the number of countries connected by these services increased to 23, 23 and 9 respectively. The targets for the Third Five Year Plan have been indicated in terms of the number of independent transmission circuits which will be available at each station as follows:
15 Targets for overseas communications service stations in the
Provision is made for the introduction on an increasing scale of modem automatic error detection devices and for the development of leased channels and telex services for achieving speed and efficiency of service. The programmes relating to overseas communications services have a priority, in view of the growing needs for international communications and the considerable saving in foreign exchange expenditure expected to be realised from the expansion of the service.
81. The India Meteorological Department provides weather services to a large variety of interests including civil and military aviation, mercantile and naval shipping, communication services, agriculture and public health services, etc. During the Second Plan, the activities of the Kodaikanal Observatory in solar, stellar and radio-astronomical work were expanded. The Seismological Observatory at Delhi was shifted to a new building and equipped with a number of seismographs of up-to-date type. A seismo-logical observatory was also established at Port Blair. Among the other schemes undertaken during the Second Plan period mention may be made of the establishment of two field magnetic observatories at Trivandrum and Annamalainagar, modernisation and development of radio meteorology, climatology and agricultural meteorology.
82. In the Third Plan further progress will be made with the modernisation of equipment at important observatories. It is proposed to improve the network of rawin radio-sonde stations by starting 18 additional stations with modern electronic equipment in order to provide upper air data for issue of forecasts for high level jet aircraft flights over the country. More aerodromes will be equipped with storm detection radars. It is proposed to start a Northern Hemispheric Collection and Analysis Centre at New Delhi to collect, study, and disseminate meteorology data for the northern hemisphere. A training centre for the training of staff in radio meteorology will also be established at New Delhi. An institute of Tropical Meteorology will be established at Poona for advanced research and training in tropical meteorology. A provision of Rs. 2 crores has been made for capital equipment required by the Department and Rs. 1 crore for the construction works.
WIRELESS PLANNING AND CO-ORDINATION
83. Wireless Planning and Co-ordination has two main functions to perform. The first is the work of "Frequency Management", i.e., conserving the frequencies already available for the wireless services of this country and finding out fresh and vacant positions in the wireless spectrum which could be made available to India's rapidly developing wireless activities. The second primary function is related to the administration and enforcement of the Indian Wireless Telegraphy Act and of the International Convention and Regulations on Telecommunications. The provision in the Third Plan is intended for the establishment of new monitoring stations, extension of existing monitoring stations and purchase of equipment for them.
84. In the field of broadcasting considerable progress has been made during the last ten years. In the First Five Year Plan, each language area was provided with at least one transmitting station bringing the total number of stations to 26 which was further raised to 28 by the end of the Second Plan. The main objective of the development programme in the Second Five Year Plan was to extend the available services to as wide an area as possible largely through internal short-wave transmitters and to strengthen the external broadcast services. The objective in the Third Five Year Plan is to make the internal coverage more effective by expanding the medium wave broadcast services and by strengthening the arrangements for pre-recording of programmes. The programme in the Third Plan also includes provision for further improvement of the external broadcast services.
85. The development programme for broadcasting included in the Third Five Year Plan is estimated to cost about Rs. 11 crores. The various schemes included in the programme are indicated below :
16 The break-up of the broadcasting programme in the Third Plan
At the time of the formulation of these proposals, the highest priority was given to the programme for the expansion of internal broadcast services. This assumed great urgency in view of international agreements. The expansion scheme was, therefore, initiated during the Second Plan period and is proposed to be completed during the Third Plan period. Under this scheme, 55 medium wave and 2 short wave transmitters will be installed at various centres all over the country. The object is mainly to extend the coverage of the existing network of stations to hitherto uncovered regions as also to provide an alternate channel of light music programmes for urban listeners. In consequence, the medium wave internal services which now cover 37 per cent of the total area and 55 per cent of the population will get extended to include 61 per cent of the area and 74 per cent of the population of the country.
Except at a few locations, no new studio or programme originating facilities are envisaged but the programmes from the existing stations will be pre-recorded on tape and re-broadcast over the new transmitters wh'ch will be in the nature of satellite or auxiliary centres. The proposals, therefore, include a comprehensive scheme for supply and installation of the necessary tape recording, playback and duplicating equipment at all the centres.
86. While the main features of the development programme of the All India Radio will thus consist of the medium wave expansion plan and associated tape-recording scheme, the programme also includes provision for certain other schemes, such as expansion of facilities for community listening in the villages, a television centre at Bombay (in addition to the small education television unit at Delhi), engineering research and improvement in the external services, etc. Within the provision for community listening in the programme of All India Radio, it is expected to provide about 32,000 new sets during the period of the Third Plan. The?e will be supplemented by the sets provided under the community development programme. Steps are being taken to coordinate the community listening programme of the All India Radio with that of the Ministry of Community Development.
The programme for external broadcasting services is estimated to cost Rs. 2 crores and provides for installation of five additional short wave transmitters for strengthening these services.
|[ Home ]||
|<< Back to Index|