|3rd Five Year Plan||
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The economic and social aspects of a plan of development are closely interconnected. Several of the social programmes in the Third Plan have been outlined in earlier Chapters. This Chapter is devoted to the consideration of three important welfare programmes, namely, those relating to social welfare, prohibition and rehabilitation of displaced persons.
2. Development over the past decade of social welfare activities as an integral part of the first and Second Plans has a significance which extends beyond the range of services established or the extent of resources utilised. They express the concern of the community for the welfare of its many vulnerable sections and emphasise an essential value in national development. In drawing large numbers of voluntary workers, specially women, into the field of creative social service, the community is itself enriched and strengthened. Inevitably, extension in a field of activity as varied and dispersed as social welfare brings its own problems, and these call for systematic review from time to time of what has been achieved and of the measures needed to improve the quality of walfare services. Moreover, with the establishment of democratic institutions at the district and block level, the manner in which the voluntary organisations might fulfil the tasks assigned to them will need further consideration.
3. The social welfare programmes, which have been implemented by voluntary organisations with the assistance of the Central and State Governments, include, amongst others, welfare extension projects undertaken by She Central and State Social Welfare Boards, programmes relating to social defence, social and moral hygiene and after-care services and other welfare programmes. Welfare services are directed in particular towards sections of the community which need special care and protection. In developing them, the object is to replace individual and haphazard relief and charity by organised and sustained activity for education, welfare and rehabilitation undertaken with the general support of the community. Increasingly, instead of being merely institutional, welfare services will have to be community and family-oriented. Preventive services will continue to play an important role. Mental hygiene services like student and youth counselling, child guidance clinics and marriage counselling deserve special emphasis. As these services develop, greatel need is felt for trained personnel. With large numbers of voluntary organisations employing paid personnel, it is also essential to standardise their training and to establish suitable norms for salaries and other terms and conditions of ervice. There is also greater need for providing orientation and training for voluntary welfare workers.
4. A variety of welfare services have been developed in recent years through financial support provided by the Central and State Governments. After each phase of development, adequate arrangements have to be made for the continuance of the new services on a permanent basis. The resources provided under the Third Plan are being utilised both for expanding the existing welfare services and for assisting voluntary organisations to continue those already established. To this extent, development of new services tends to be limited. In the interest of future development it will be desirable to distinguish between arrangements required to enable voluntary organisations to maintain the services already established and the resources provided for new development. Vountary organisations can be encouraged through financial assistance to promote needed welfare services in areas where they do not exist and also to initiate new welfare services not hitherto undertaken.
5. A stage has reached in the development of welfare services when, for the better utilisation of the available resources and improvement in the quality of the services offered, it is essential that the various Government agencies concerned, both at the Centre and in the States, should achieve a larger measure of coordination among themselves. This would avoid duplication and overlapping in considering requests, providing assistance for similar purposes, and parallel approach on the part of voluntary organisation to more than one Government agency. At the same time, it is essential that voluntary organisations themselves should develop along specialised lines, each selecting a limited area of activity in which its workers gain experience and intimate knowledge of problems.
6. In its very nature, progress in social welfare is difficult to measure. Its true testa are the numbers of voluntary workers who participate in social welfare activities and the ret-ponse from each local community towards the solution of its social problems. Whatever the shortcomingsand there are bound to be many in so difficult a fieldthe record of work over the past decade has been in many ways outstanding. About 6000 voluntary welfare organisations in different parts of the country have been assisted by the Central and State Social Welfare Boards. Of these, about 2900 were engaged in work for the welfare of women and about 2400 in work relating specially to child welfare. In the course of the Second Plan, assistance amounting to about Rs. 2.6 crores was given to more than 3700 voluntary welfare organisations. Among others, activities loi which the Central and State Social Welfare Boards nave been responsible are the establishment of 75 urban community centres, 21 production units to assist women to supplement their incomes, and 42 night shelters in urban areas. A large number ot adult women were enabled through condensed courses to attain the minimum educational qualifications necessary for further vocational training and employment. An important step was taken during the First Plan with the selling up of welfare extension projects, each serving some 25 villages, and providing maternity and child health services, craft classes, social education for women and care of children through bal-wadis. These projects, along with 134 more established during the Second Plan, have now been made over to mahila mandals with financial assistance from the Central Social Welfare Board. In addition, 337 welfare extension projects were established during the Second Plan in coordination with the community development programme, resources being obtained in part from the Central Social Welfare Board and in part from State Governments and the community development block budgets.
7. During the Second Plan, a total outlay of about Rs. 15 crores have been incurred on social welfare. Among the main development programmes may be mentioned welfare extension projects and the assistance given to voluntary organisations by the Central Social Welfare Board, (about Rs. 10 crores), social defence, social and moral hygiene and aftercare services, and welfare schemes of State Governments (about Rs. 5 crores). Under the programme for social defence, social and moral hygiene and aftercare services 327 institutions have been established and 128 probation and welfare officers have been appointed.
8. In the Third Plan, provision has been made for programmes involving a total outlay of Rs. 28 croresRs. 16 crores at the Centre and Rs. 12 crores in the States. The programmes of the Central Social Welfare Board, including assistance to voluntary organisations and welfare extension projects, envisage a total out'ay of Rs. 12 crores. In addition, schemes for child welfare and pre-primary education with a provision of Rs. 3 crores have been included, under 'Education'. Other schemes to be implemented under social welfare relate to urban community welfare projects, training research and surveys, social defence and aftercare and the setting up of a Central Bureau of Correctional Administration. It is also proposed to make a small beginning in the direction of assisting certain categories of persons without any means of livelihood or supportthe physically handicapped, old persons unable to work, women and children.
9. The following are the principal programmes to be undertaken by the Central and State Social Welfare Boards during the Third Plan :
Considerable emphasis is being placed in the Third Plan on child welfare programmes. In addition to continuing work initiated during the Second Plan, it is proposed to take up in each State and Union Territory at least one pilot project in child welfare on the basis of complete coordination in services provided by medical and public health, education, social welfare and other agencies. It is hoped that these pilot projects will suggest ways of securing the integrated functioning of different services, many of which already exist. It is also proposed to undertake pre-school education schemes and a training programme for child welfare workers (balsevikas). This training programme forms part of a scheme for improving existing child welfare centres (balwadis) and opening new ones.
10. In the programme for social defence, priority is given to schemes for the prevention and treatment of juvenile delinquency, social and moral hygiene and suppression of immoral traffic in women and girls. It is proposed to begin a systematic attack on the problem of beggary. In developing probation and aftercare services, it should be ensured that women and children are specially assisted. To deal with the problem of commercialised prostitution, the Suppression of Immoral Traffic Act was passed in 1956. In pursuance of this Act, the necessary institutions for the custody, training and rehabilitation of the women and girls affected are being established. In the course of the Second Plan, 10 protective homes, 16 rescue homes and 70 reception centres have been established. Additional centres will be set up in the Third Plan. Apart from setting up these centres, it is important to consider how the present programme for social defence could be worked even more effectively and the lines along which the community and the family could participate more fully in the work of rehabilitating women and girls.
11. Exports have been made during the Second Plan to deal with the problems of juvenile delinquency. Among the new institutions established are 40 remand homes, 17 certified schools and 5 borstal schools. Several States already have special legislation dealing with children, but there are varying provisions regarding the age limit and the categories of juvenile offenders. With the passing of the Children's Act of 1960, which applies to Union Territories, it is suggested that, on essential matters, there should be uniformity throughout the country. In dealing with juvenile delinquency and victims of commercialised prostitution and immoral traffic, probation officers have an important role. In the Second Plan their number was increased by 100 to a total of 304. Jn the Third Plan, it is proposed to appoint J 12 more probation officers.
12. Beggary is an age-old social evil which has been allowed to continue far too long and, apart from the demoralisation it causes, is a source of discredit to the country. The problem has been studied in several places and it is important that States and local bodies should now endeavour to deal with it effectively. In the first instance, beggary should be eradicated from large cities, places, of pilgrimage and tourist centres. Broadly, beggars fall into four groups namely (a) child beggars, (b) those who are diseased, disabled, infirm or aged, (c) able-bodied and professional exploiters, and (d) religious mendicants.
13. The problem of child beggars should he first isolated as children who take to begging are often victims of gangs of exploiters. There should be special police units for dealing with juveniles, including vagrants, delinquent children and children in the pre-delinquent stage. The Indian Penal Code provides for severe punishment of persons found guilty of exploiting children for anti-social purposes and kidnapping or maiming children for the purpose of begging. Children's Acts also provide for protection against exploitation of children for anti-social purposes, including beggary. Thus, the necessary legislation already exists, and the main task now is to ensure its effective enforcement.
14. Beggars in the second group who are diseased, disabled, infirm or aged, should be taken care of in residential institutions run by voluntary welfare organisations. Besides, assistance from State Governments and local bodies and support from the community, these organisations could be assisted in a small way from the special fund referred to in the Chapter on Labour Policy, under which it is proposed to make a beginning by way of relief and assistance for three groups of personsthe physically handicapped, old persons unab'e to work, women and children.
15. Able-bodied beggars should be rounded up and sent to work camps to be organised at the sites of various projects. Rehabilitation programmes in small industries and agriculture should also be organised for them. Begging by able-bodied persons should be a public offence.
16. Religious mendicants constitute a varied group, and at the present stage it would be desirable to approach their problems through organisations like the Bharat Sadhu Samaj and others.
17. It would be desirable to undertake Central legislation for the control and eradication of beggary and vagrancy.
18. In recent years there has been progress in developing special services and facilities for physically and mentally handicapped persons, specially those who are blind, deaf and dumb, and those who are orthopaedically handicapped and mentally deficient. For each category, the primary object of the services provided for iHese groups should be to enable them to rehabilitate themselves through work. Since many persons in these groups come from rural areas, where traditionally the community readily provides a measure of help, it would be desirable to give a rural bias to the training and rehabilitation programmes for these groups. Facilities for enabling handicapped persons to find work have been provided at a few employment exchanges. Local bodies and voluntary organisations are already playing a significant role in serving handicapped persons. Their services should be further developed along the following lines :
During the period of training for new employment, there should be provision for financial assistance, stipends, etc.
19. Urban community development has immense potentialities for bringing about social and environmental change in urban communities despite their hetrogenous character. The success of this programme will depend by and large on the extent of self-help evinced by the people, the role of the official being essentially to supplement voluntary efforts. There is a large scope in this field of work for voluntary organisations and the Lok Karya Kshetra, and Corporations and municipalities could make fuller use of their services. A few pioneering experiments tackling successfully difficult urban conditions through schemes of urban community development involving people's support, initiative and their mobilisation have been already taken in hand.
20. In March 1956, the Lok Sabha passed the following resolution :
"This House is of opinion that Prohibition should be regarded as an integral part of the Second Five Year Plan and recommends that the Planning Commission should formulate the necessary programme to bring about nation-wide Prohibition speedily and effectively."
In pursuance of this resolution, a number of recommendations were made in the Second Five Year Plan. It was pointed out that prohibition had already been accepted as a Directive Principle in the Constitution and there was need to adopt a common national approach towards it. State Governments should draw up their won phased programmes along lines broadly agreed for the country as a whole and there should be provision for constant review and assessment. As a first step, it was suggested that advertisements and public inducements relating to drink should be discontinued and drinking in public premises (hotels, hostels, restaurants, clubs, etc.), and at public receptions should be stopped. A series of other steps to be taken subsequently were also suggested. These were
Action has been taken in a number of States on the suggestions mentioned above, but for the country as a whole, progress has been slow.
21. The Second Plan recommended the setting up a Central Committee to review the progress, of prohibition programmes, to coordinate activities in different States and to keep in touch with their practical problems. It was also proposed that Prohibition Boards and district prohibition committees should be set up in the States and there should be Administrators of Prohibition to implement the programme. The Ministry of Home Affairs constituted a Central Committee which met towards the end of 1960.
22. Prohibition is essentially a social welfare movement. Its sucdess as a voluntary movement for social reform depends on a number of conditions, in particular on
23. The question of loss of revenue may be considered first. As the Second Plan explained, in considering any basic social policy, financial considerations, although of great practical importance, are not to be treated as decisive in character. The possible loss of resources on account of prohibition may itself be a temporary rather than a permanent effect and on balance may turn out to hs smaller than is sometimes reckoned. If the movement for prohibition proceeds on the right linesand this is the assumption on which proposal's for prohibition should restit should make for a healthier life for the individual and the community, should help make the individual worker and his family more productive, and should augment national savings. Nevertheless, in the initial stages, it may be that as a result of measures introduced in pursuance of prohibition the revenue from excise may fall below the estimates which States have taken into consideration while formulating theil plans. This aspect should be considered further by the Central and State Governments. Obviously, financial reasons alone could not lead to a fundamental break in carrying out a social programme which is considered necessary in the interest of the mass of the people throughout the country. :
24. Given this approach to the financial aspects of prohibition it should be possible for each State to consider further steps. It is not envisaged that States should fix target dates for introducing complete prohibition, for such target dates are in practice difficult to work out or to adhere to. However, a country-wide approach would make it easier for all States to ensure implementation and to check inter-State and inter-district smuggling. The various measures recommended in the Second Plan constitute a limited but practical programme which should be implemented in the course of the next two or three years. It should be possible also for States which have introduced prohibition in some districts to extend it steadily to other areas, care being taken to provide for appropriate dry belts between districts which have prohibition and those in which prohibition has not yet been introduced. Periodical review and evaluation of progress would suggest further steps. In pursuing the programme for prohibition two important considerations should of course be kept in view. Firstly, the customs and traditions of the tribal people must be fully respected. Secondly, due attention must be given to the convenience and requirements of foreign visitors and tourists and of foreign missions.
25. The question of the means to be employed and the agencies available is of special importance in a programme like prohibition. Obviously. if prohibition were to rest primarily on enforcement by the poHce and by excise staff, not much progress could be made. The main reliance has therefore to be on
With a view to achieving greater progress in these directions, it would be useful to provide financial assistance to voluntary organisations for educational and promotional work among the people and also to give a measure of support to other activities which would assist the progress of prohibition. This could be done in large part from within the provisions in the Plan for "public cooperation". The amounts involved would not be considerable, and an appreciable beginning could be made.
REHABILITATION OF DISPLACED PERSONS
26. After Partition, about 8.9 million persons migrated from Pakistan into India, about 4.7 million from West Pakistan and the rest from East Pakistan. At the census of 1951 the number of displaced persons had been reckoned at about 7.5 million. Between 1947-48 and 1960-61 a total outlay of about Rs. 239 crores was incurred on the rehabilitation of displaced persons. Of this amount, about Rs. 133 crores were spent for displaced persons from West Pakistan and about Rs. 106 crores for those from East Pakistan. Relief and other operations entailed a total outlay of Rs. 128 crores. The following Table shows outlays on rehabilitation before the First Plan and during the first two Plans :
of expenditure on rehabilitation since 1947-48
DISPLACED PERSONS FROM WEST PAKISTAN
27. The rehabilitation of displaced persons from West Pakistan was undertaken in the main before and during the First Plan. The distribution of expenditure under different rehabilitation programmes is shown in the Table below :
on rehabilitation of displaced persons from West Pakistan
anticipated is about Rs. 63 crores.
28. The greater part of the work relating t@ the resettlement on land of displaced landholders from West Punjab and persons of Punjabi extraction from other parts of West Pakistan was completed by 1950-51. Evacuee lands in the Punjab were allotted on a quasi-permanent basis to about 477,000 displaced landholders;in addition, about 33,000 families of tenants were settled on land. Land was also allotted on a temporary basis outside Punjab, spec'ally in Rajasthan, to about 58,000 persons. Under the Displaced Persons (Compensation and Rehabilitation) Act, 1954, quasi-permanent rights in land of about 270,000 allottees have s'nce been converted into proprietory rights. The programme of rural rehabilitation also included grants of loans for building houses and for schemes of agricultural improvement, the total amount advanced being Rs. 9.3 crores. Rural rehabilitation was greatly facilitated by the availability of evacuee lands, although these were on the whole considerably smaller in extent and of lesser value than those abandoned in West Pakistan.
29. Displaced persons from urban areas were faced with problems of a different and in some ways more complex character. The displaced population had to be provided shelter and enabled to start life afresh in trade, industry and professions, and educational and health services had to be augmented to meet theil urgent needs. Housing had to be provided for nearly 2.5 million displaced persons, of whom only about one-half could be accommodated in evacuee properties. In all, 19 fully developed town-ships and 136 new colonies were constructed and provided with educational, health and other civic amenities, the total number of houses and tenements constructed being about 155,000, To assist displaced persons in rehabilitating themselves in business and industry, small urban loans of the value of Rs. 15.18 crores were advanced to displaced persons, in addition to loans amounting to Rs. 10.28 crores advanced by the Rehabilitation Finance Administration. Financial assistance was also extended for 23 schemes for medium industries and for cottage and small-scale industries.
30. To assist the education of children or displaced persons, new schools and colleges were started and many existing institutions helped to expand their capacities. A number of displaced educational institutions were assisted in establishing themselves at new centres. Vocational and technical training was given to 110,000 persons.
DISPLACED PERSONS FROM EAST PAKISTAN
31. The rehabilitation of displaced person? from East Pakistan falls mainly within the Firsi and Second Plans. The problem of rehabil'-tation of displaced persons from East Pakistan was rendered specially difficult in view of the continuing nature of the influx over many years and the heavy pressure on land and economic life in West Bengal. The distribution of outlay under different heads was as follows :
on rehabilitation of displaced persons from East Pakistan
* Includes outlay on displaced persons from West Pakistan also.
32. Upto the end of the First Plan, about 500,000 families were rehabilitated in the eastern zone. Of these, about 400,000 were settled on land and in other ancillary occupations in rural areas. For the Second Plan it was estimated that about 170,000 families would have to be rehabilitated. Owing to pressure on land in West Bengal schemes were formulated 1'or settling displaced persons in other States. In all about 78,000 families were settled in rural areas. Housing loans were advanced to about 33,000 families and a number of colonies were developed. Employment through large and small industries was given to about 14,000 persons. Twenty-one schemes for large and medium industries were approved by the Rehabilitation Industries Corporation, which was set up with an authorised capital of Rs. 5 crores for putting up industries of its own or in collaboration with p-ivate enterprise at centres with large concentrations of displaced persons. Vocational and technical training was given to 28,000 displaced persons during the First Plan and to 22,000 during the Second Plan. Medical facilities were also considerably augmented. A large number of schools and colleges were established in West Bengal with a view to providing expanded educational facilities to meet the requirements of the displaced population.
33. The development of the Dandakaranya project was taken up in the Second Plan with the object primarily of settling families of displaced persons from East Pakistan who were still in 'cumps' in West Bengal and, along with this, for promoting the welfare of the loc'al population, specially the adivasis. Since the inception of the project, over 21,000 acres of land hav" been cleared and over 13,000 acres fully reclamed. About 3700 acres have been brought und;r follow-up cultivation and about 3200 acres of reclaimed land have been placed at the disposal of district authorities for allotment to tribals against the 25 per cent share that has been reserved for them. Special attention has been given to the development of fisheries and poultry. The construction of the Bhaskal dam in the Umarkote area which commands an area of 13,750 acres has been approved. Surveys ot dams commanding over 90,000 acres have been completed, and detailed projects are being prepared. Other programmes such as malaria eradication, provision of health facilities, expansion of educational facilities etc. are also being carried out. Upto the end of February 1961, 2391 displaced families comprising 10,599 persons had moved to the Dandakaranya area. Families settling on land are being assisted with loans for the purchase of bullocks, milch cattle, implements etc.
Programme for the Third Plan
34. The task of rehabilitating displaced persons is gradually coming to an end. In respect of displaced persons from West Pakistan, provisions in the Third Plan are limited mainly to residual requirements for housing schemes and assistance for educational and health services. For displaced persons from East Pakistan, the two specific objectives are the rehabilitation of 28,600 families residing in camps and other centres in West Bengal and of about 200,000 partially rehabilitated displaced families living in West Bengal. Although financial provision is being made for them under Rehabilitation, the administration of a number of rehabilitation schemesi has been transferred from the Ministry of Rehabilitation to the Central Ministries concerned, as for instance, the Rehabilitation Industries Corporation, financial assistance for displaced students, reservation of beds and hospitals etc. Schemes of assistance for the provision of education and health services and training schemes are also proposed to be integrated progressively into the plans of States. Programmes formulated by the Ministry of Rehabilitation in consultation with the State Governments concerned add up to a total outlay of Rs. 74 crores, about Rs. 41 crores being intended for the reha^ bilitation of displaced persons from East Pakistan, about Rs. 26 crores for the Dandakaranya project and about Rs. 7 crores for rehabilitation of displaced persons from West Pakistan. The Third Plan at present envisages a provision of Rs. 40 crores. However, since the object is to complete rehabilitation in as short a period as may be feasible and rehabilitation programmes have special features of their own, it is proposed that financial provisions required for carrying out the essential programmes should be made each year in the light of the actual progress in rehabilitation and the tasks still outstanding.
35. A few of the principal items in the programme of rehabilitation of displaced persons from East Pakistan may be briefly mentioned. It is hoped that about 18,000 agricultural families will be rehabilitated on landabout 3000 families in West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh, and the remaining families in the Dandakaranya area. Urban loans are expected to be given to about 12,000 families. Loans will also be given to agriculturists for irrigation, reclamation and purchase of agricultural requisites. A substantial programme for the construction of housing units and grant of urban house building loans has been drawn up. Provision has also been made for loans for small scale as well as medium industries. The Plan provides, amongst other things, for educational facilities for the children of displaced persons who are present in the camos, for assistance to private educational institutions catering to the needs of displaced persons and for aid to needy and deserving displaced students. The Plan also provides for vocational and technical training and for medical facilities for displaced persons in West Bengal. Programmes for the Dandakaranya area are being formulated in detail. They include schemes for land reclamation, irrigation, road development, loans and grants for rehabilitation and provision for educational and social services.
Rehabilitation and Development
36. In its closing phases, rehabilitation of displaced persons takes the form more and more of specific tasks remaining over from an earlier period merges into the larger efforts to rebuild the economy of the nation and especially of those States and regions which have borne the greatest burdens. Within the expanding national economy greater integration between rehabilitation and development helps the speedy economic assimilation of displaced persons.
Almost fifteen years ago, the challenge of rehabilitation came with bewildering suddenness and immensity, and there have been critical moments since. Nevertheless, one by one. in the midst of the travail through which millions have lived and despite shortcomings, the major problems of the displaced persons are being resolved and the foundations of a new life well and truly laid.
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