|4th Five Year Plan||
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There was continuing expansion, both in transport and quent years. The following table shows, category-wis in communications, during the Third Plan and subse- the progress made since 1960-61:
Table 1 Category-wise Progress from 1960-61 to 1968-69
15.2. Although there have been substantial investments in development of transport and considerable expansion of transport capacities, imbalances have emerged from time to time. Transport difficulties were experienced in the early years of the Third Plan, in the movement of coal from the Bengal and Bihai coalfields towards the northern, western and southern parts of the country. Difficulties were also experienced in the movement of raw materials and finished products of certain other industries." Measures were taken to increase rail capacity and to augment rolling stock. In the latter part of the Third Plan, however, some of this capacity turned out to be surplus since the traffic targets originally set did not materialise, mainly on account of the slow growth of the economy.
15.3. Transport has a crucial role in economic development. The results of a large number of surveys as well as past experience, have highlighted the complexities involved in making accurate projections of transport demand, both in relation to its total volume and its spatial pattern. Investments in transport have long gestation periods and are often large and lumpy. It is necessary not only to make careful and realistic assessment of transport requirements in advance, but also to review them continually so that suitable adjustments are made from time to time. The problem is to avoid economic losses which might arise either because of transport bottlenecks for want of adequate provision or because of unutilised facilities created in excess of requirements.
Trends in Rail and Road Traffic
15.4. The growth and relative share of rail and road in goods and passenger traffic is shown below :
Table 2 Relative Share of Rail and Road in Goods and Passenger Traffic
Goods traffic carried by rail has increased by 42 per cent between 1960-61 and 1968-69 and that by road has increased by 135 per cent. The share of roads in the total goods traffic carried by rail and road together has increased from 16 per cent in 1960-61 to 24 per cent in 1968-69. Passenger traffic by rail has increased between 1960-61 and 1968-69 by 37 per cent and that by road by 72 per cent. The share of roads in passenger traffic has increased from about 42 per cent in 1960-61 to about 48 per cent in 1968-69. Trends observed in the past are expected to continue during the Fourth Plan period. It is estimated that the share of roads in the total traffic carried by road and rail may increase to about 35 per cent in respect of goods traffic and to 51 per cent in respect of passenger traffic.
15.5. The total outlay on Transport and Communications in the public sector during the Fourth Flan is reckoned at Rs. 3237 crores including Rs. 2664 crores in the Central Sector and Rs. 573 crores in the Plans of States and Union Territories. The distribution of the outlay between different programmes is shown below :
Table 3 Public Sector Outlay on Transport and Communications
1 Includes Rs.
50 erores for projects connected with metropolitan transport.
15.6. The railway development programme provides for anticipated increase in freight and passenger traffic. Equipment and operations will be modernised to improve efficiency of the system and reduce costs. The pace of conversion from metre gauge to broad gauge will be accelerated in areas of rapid economic development and high traffic potential.
15.7. The originating freight traffic on the railways increased from 156.2 million tonnes in 1960-61 to 203.0 million tonnes in 1965-66. The traffic declined to 201.6 million tonnes in. 1966-67 and further to 196.6 million tonnes in 1967-68. The traffic picked up in 1968-69 and the total originating freight traffic in that year amounted to 204.0 million tonnes. In terms of tonne-kilometres, there was a slight decline in 1966-67 and an increase of 2 and 5 per cent respectively in the subsequent two years. The following table shows the growth of rail traffic from 1960-61 to 1968-69 :
4 Growth of Freight Traffic on the Railways since 1960-61
The increase in traffic over the last 8 years is accounted for mainly by bulk commodities including steel and raw materials, coal, iron ore for export, cement, petroleum products, foodgrains and fertilisers. On the basis of estimates of production of major commodities in the Fourth Plan, it is estimated that originating freight traffic on the railways in 1973-74 would be about 280 to 290 million tonnes. As in the past, the bulk commodities are expected to account for a large part of the increase in traffic in the Fourth Plan. With the programmes already completed and those included in the Fourth Plan, adequate line capacity is expected to be available to meet the requirements of likely growth of traffic. If changes in the volume and pattern grammes, these would be considered in the course of the Plan period. As regards rolling stock, the provision made at present may be adequate for about 265 million tonnes of originating freight traffic. The railways will be in a position to meet the requirements of additional traffic by more intensive utilisation of rolling stock and to the extent necessary by acquisition of additional rolling stock. As the additional rolling stock can be acquired at a notice of about twelve to eighteen months, no difficulty is envisaged by the railways in augmenting the rail transport capacity in keeping with the actual growth of traffic. It is proposed to keep the estimates of traffic under constant review and make suitable adjustments from year to year.
15.8. The growth of passenger traffic over the last 8 years has been as under :
Two broad trends have been observed in the growth of passenger traffic in the past. First, the increase of non-suburban passenger traffic in terms of passenger kilometres has been greater than in terms of passengers originating, showing a n increase in the lead of traffic. Secondly, the increase in suburban traffic has been much faster than in non-suburban traffic. These trends may be expected to continue during the Fourth Plan period
Table 5 Growth of Passenger Traffic on the Railways
also. The programme for the Fourth Plan provides for an increase of about 20 per cent in passenger vehicle kilometres for non-suburban services, as against an increase of about 17 per cent achieved during the Third Plan period. As regards suburban traffic, provision has been made for an increase of 31 per cent in EMU services over the five-year period of the Fourth Flan Measures are proposed to be taken to improve utilisa tion of coaching stock. Further, it is proposed to run high speed trains on long distance routes, where overcrowding is comparatively heavy. A specific provision of Rs. 50 crores has been made in the Fourth Five Year Plan for schemes for mass transit facilities in the metropolitan cities of Bombay, Calcutta, Madras and Delhi.
15.9. The Fourth Plan provides for an outlay of Rs. 1000 crores for the railway development programme, excluding an expenditure of Rs. 525 crores to be met by the Railways from their Depreciation Reserve Fund. In addition, a provision of Rs. 50 crores has been made for metropolitan transport. The main components of the outlay are :
6 Outlay for Railways
15.10 Ihe rolling stock programme provides for the following addition and replacements.
7 Additions and Replacements in Rolling Stock Programme
1 These are for replacement of steam locomotives.
The programme for acquisition of rolling stock is based entirely on indigenous production. In 1968-69, about 16,500 wagons were manufactured in the country. It is expected that to meet the requirements of the railways, the production will be stepped up to about 21,500 wagons by 1973-74. The manufacturing capacity for diesel locomotives is being developed at the Diesel Locomotive Works, Varanasi and for electric locomotives at the Chittaranjan Locomotives Works. It is expected that the production of diesel locomotives including diesel shunters will increase from 87 locomotives in 1968-69 to about 195 locomotives in 1973-74. Similarly, the capacity for production of electric locomotives is proposed to be stepped up from 48 in 1968-69 to about 70 in 1973-74. Dieselisation is proposed to be extended from 19,200 route kilometres in 1968-69 to about 22,000 route kilometres in 1973-74. Electric traction will be extended from 2900 route kilometres to about 4600 route kilometres in 1973-74. It is proposed to electrify or dieselise fully the high density routes which are at present under mixed traction. Dieselisation will be extended to other sections in an order of priority determined by relative densities of traffic and continuity of diesel traction, preference being given to those sections which are far removed from the coalfields so as to reduce the burden on the transport system. A techno-economic study on dieselisation of railways is being undertaken and the programmes for dieselisation will be reviewed in the light of the results of the study. The programme of conversion of metre gauge lines into broad gauge in intended to eliminate delay and damage, particularly at the transhipment points, and improve the economics of railway operation. In the Fourth Plan, a programme of converting 1500 kilometres of metre gauge lines into broad gauge lines will be taken up as part of long-term plan. It is expected that conversion of 750 kilometres of metre gauge lines into broad gauge v/ill be completed during the Fourth Plan period. The main objective is to extend the broad gauge system to areas of intensive economic development and high traffic potential. Doubling of track is proposed to be provided on 1800 kilometres. This includes about 550 kilometres on which work was in progress at the beginning of the Fourth Plan. The sections to be taken up for doubling will be determined on the basis of their traffic and financial justifications.
15.11. At the beginning of the Fourth Plan, work was in progress on construction of a number of new railway lines extending over a length of 1022 kilometrs. In addition to making provision for these lines, the Fourth Plan provides for a limited programme of new lines mainly to meet the needs of basic and heavy industries and of the traffic in minerals like coal and iron ore. In view of heavy investment involved in the construction of new lines, it is proposed to consider the traffic and economic justification of each proposal and take into account the relative economics of alternative modes of transport, specially road transport.
15.12. Despite substantial progress made in road development over the last eighteen years, the road system has still large deficiencies. The national high way system has about 400 kilometres of missing road links and 17 missing major bridges. Of the total 24,000 kilometres of national highways, about two thirds have single-lane width. The State road system also suffer from various handicaps. Besides inadequat road length, the existing roads in many areas have substandard surfaces, narrow width and weak bridges A number of roads originally meant for light traffic require to be strengthened for much high intensities of traffic that have developed or are anticipated to develop. Many economically backward regions and hitly areas have poor communications. A large number of villages still lack road links with market towns and with one another. In metropolitan cities, the development of the road system has fallen far behind the growing requirements of traffic.
15.13. A provision of Rs. 418 crores has been made for the road development programme in the Central sector. The programme provides for the following schemes :
8 Outlay for Central Road Programmes
To bring about improvements in the existing network of national highways, it is proposed to complete all the missing road links and improve all the low-grade sections. Of the 17 major missing bridges on the national highways system, 16 will be completed and work on the remaining one will be in progress by the end of the Plan. The programme provides for reconstruction of weak bridges and culverts and widening of important sections of the national highways to two lanes. Provision has been made for completion of the Lateral Road from Bareilly in Uttar Pradesh to Amingaon in Assam. It is proposed to add a limited length of roads to the national highways.
15.14. For the road development programmes in States and Union Territories, a provision of Rs. 453 crores had been made. Besides completion of the works in progress, priority will. be given to removals of deficiencies in the existing road systems such as missing Sinks, unbridged river crossings and improvement of lovi-grade sections. Provision has also been made for reconstruction of weak bridges and widening of roads. The road system will be strengthened to some extent to meet the requirements of metropolitan cities, industrial and mminft areas and hilly and backward regions. It should be possible to inc^ease the length of surfaced roads from about 325,000 kilometies at the end of 1968-69 to about 385,000 kilometres at the end of the Fourth Plan.
15.15. Special emphasis is being laid on the development of rural roads. They are necessary for the growth of the rural economy and for increases in agricultural production. State Governments have agreed to set apart about 25 per cent of the total outlay on road development for rural roads. Local resources will also be mobilised. Priority is to be given to roads leading to market towns.
15.16. Proper maintenance of existing roads is of importance for the efficiency of the system. Allocation of funds for maintenance is made outside the Plan .provisions. With the increase in the intensities of traffic in recent years, maintenance of roads has assumed special significance and larger budgetary provision is being made for maintenance by Central and State Governments.
15.17. The total goods traffic by road transport is expected to increase from about 40 thousand million tonne- kilometres in 1968-69 to about 84 thousand million tonne-kilometres in 1973-74. The passenger traffic is expected to increase from about 98 thousand million passenger kilometres in 1968-69 to about 140 thousand million passenger kilometres in 1973-74. In order to cater for the estimated increase in traffic, it is reckoned that the number of trucks on the road will need to be increased from about 301,000 in 1968-69 to about 4,70,000 at the end of 1973-74. The number of buses will need to be increased from about 85,000 to about 115,000. The production of commercial vehicles is estimated to increase from 35,000 in 1968-69 to 85,000 in the last year of the Plan.
15.18. A provision of Rs. 89 crores is pioposed for augmenting the services of the nationalised trans. port undertakings in the States. In addition, a provision of Rs. 10 crores has been included in the Railways' plan for contribution to the capital of State road transport undertakings. In the programmes of the undertakings, priority will be given to the strengthening of services on the existing routes. In the Central Plan, a provision of Rs. 3 corres is proposed for the Central Road Transport Corporation which operates in the north-east region and for financial assistance to the Central Road Transport Training and Research Institute, Poona.
15.19. A large part of the expansion of road transport is expected to be in the private sector. The investment in road transport in the private sector during the Fourth plan period is estimated at Rs 935 crores. As a result of the likely increase in the share of road transport in the total traffic, the share of roads and road transport in the total investment is likely to increase substantially during the Fourth Plan period as compared to the Third Five Year Plan. The following table compares the investment in railways and roads and road transport both ia public and private sectors :
Table 9 Investment in Rail and Road Transport
15.20. The traffic handled by major ports is expected to increase from about 55 million tonnes in 1968-69 to about 77 million tomies in 1973-74. A major part of the increase in traffic .is on account of bulk commodities such as petroleum products, iron ore and fertilisers (including raw materials). The increase in the proportion of these bulk commodities in the total traffic at ports will necessitate development of specific facilities for handling such traffic. The total cost of the programme for the development of major parts included in the Central sector is about Rs. 280 crores. The Port Trusts are expected to contribute about Rs. 100 crores from their own resources and a provision of Rs. 160 crore^ has been made in the Plan. There will be a spill-over of Rs. 20 crores beyond 1973-74. The more important schemes in progress which are proposed to be completed in the Fourth Plan are the Haldia dock system and the Mangalore and Tuticorin port projects. Provision has been made for completion of the dock expansion scheme at Bombay and the oil dock in Madras outer harbour which were started in the Third Plan. Among the new major schemes, mention may be made of the installation of modern ore handling facilities at Mor-mugao and Madras harbours, construction of an outer harbour at Visakhapatnam for handling deep draft ore carriers initially up to 100,000 dwt .(dead weight tonnage) and ultimately up to. 200,000 dwt, construction of a satellite port for". Bombay at Nheva Sheva and an oi! terminal at Cochin. It is proposed to set up a Central Dredging Organisation to meet the capital dredging requirements of major and minor ports. Provision is being made for technical investigations relating to problems common to various ports as also for the setting up of a consultancy organisation.
15.21. The traffic handled by minor ports was of the order of 8 million tonnes in 1968-69. For the development of minor ports, a provision of Rs. 35 crores has been made in the Fourth Plan which includes Rs. 20 crores in the Central Plan and Rs. 15 crores in the Plans of States and Union Territories. In the Central Plan, provision has been made for a. Minor Ports Dredging and Survey Organisation development of ports facilities in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindivi Islands and a few other selected ports in States such as Porbandar, Mirya Bay,'Cuddalore etc. In the State Plans, provision has been made for improvements at important ports.
15.22. Shipping tonnage reached the level of 2.14 millioa grt (gross regi and etred tonnage) by the end of 1968-69. It is made up of 1.80 million grt of oxer-seas tonnage and 0.34 million grt of coastal tonnaga. Ships with a capacity of 0.62 million grt were on order to be de'r'vered during the Fourth Plan period. At present, the Indian tonnage is catering for about 15 per cent of the overseas trade. While in the cass of liner trade, the share of Indian shipping is 40 to 45 par cent, the share is less than 10 p:;r cent in the bulk cargo ti'ade. A provision of Rs. 135 crores has been made for acquisition of ship-,. By the end of the Fourth Plan, it might be possible to reach about 3.5 million g't of shipping tonnage. This would include about 3.1 million grt of overseas tonnage and 0.4 million grt of coastal tonnage. Another 0.5 million grt .will be on order. The main addition will bo in respect of liners, tramps (including bulk carriers) aad tankers. It is expected that Indian shipping would cater for about 40 per cent of [country overseas trade at the end of the Fourth Plan. A provision of Rs. 5 crores has also been made in the Plan for loan assistance to sailing vessels industry, replacement of the training ship "Dufferin", expansion of training facilities' and programmes for the welfare of seamen.
Inland Water Transport
15.23. The provision of Rs. 9 crorcs in the Central Plan for the development of inland water transport includes Rs. 5 crores for th? Central schemes, such as the Central Inland Water Traasport Corporation, (CIWTC), technical organisation, training establishment, development of Panda and Jogigopa ports and Rs. 4 crores for Centrally sponsored schemes. The main programme of the CIWTC is modernisation of the Rajabagan Dockyard at Calcutta.
15.24. The Farakka Barrage was taken up mainly to improve the navigability of tlie Calcutta Port. Its total cost is estimated at Rs. 156 crores, against which the expenditure incurred up to 1968-69 is about Rs. 78 crores. Tin scheme is expeited to be completed in the Fourth Plan.
Civil Air Transport
15.25. Important technological changes are takinS place in the field of air transport. During the period -of the Fourth Plan, aircraft of much bigger size and with greater speed than in use at present are expected to be introduced. These aircraft are expected to be operated through the country by Air India by about 1971 and by foreign airlines even earlier. A provision of Rs. 202 crores has been made in the Fourth Plau for developmaat of civil air transport in the Central sector.
Table 10 Outlay for Civil Air Transport
15.26. The Fourth Plan envisages improvements of runway, terminal and communication facilities, at the four international airports at Bombay, Calcutta Delhi and Madras, so as to make them suitable for operation of heavier and larger capacity aircraft like Boeing 747 (Jumbo) jets. The Plan also provides for the development of various airports for domestic air services. With the anticipated growth of internal air traffic including tourist traffic and the gradual rceplace ment of Dakotas by larger aircraft, it would be neessary to remodel the runways and, to some extent, the terminal facilities.
15.27. The available capacity of Indian Airlines is expected to increase from 208 million tonne-kilo-metres is 1968-69 to 392 million tonne-kilometres in 1973-74. The Plan provides for an increase in the fleet strength of the Corporation, which proposes to acquire Boeing 737 jets for deployment on the trunk routes. The propose outlay of Rs. 55 crores is expected to be financed to the extent of about Rs. 50 crores from the internal resources of the Corporation.
15.28. The available capacity of Air India is expected to increase from 462 million tonne kilometres in 1968-69 to 999 million tonne kilometres by 1973-74. During the Plan period Air India is expected to acquire four Boeing 747 (Jumbo) jets. The programme of the Corporation is expected to be financed entirely from its internal resources, except that it will require Rs. 15 crores from Government to enable it to maintain a proper debt-equity ratio.
15.29. A provision of Rs. 15 crores has been made for the programme of the-India Meteorological Department which includes establishment of Regional Meteorological Centre and Regional Telecommunication Hub und and r the World Weather Watch Scheme.
15.30. Tourism is an important means of earning foreign exchange. It also provides employment and promotes international contacts and understanding. The broad approach in the Fourth Plan is to expand and improve tourist facilities with a view to promoting 'destinational' traffic as distinct from 'transit' traffic. It is proposed to take up integrated development of selected areas and encourage charter traffic. Emphasis is being laid on provision of accommodation, transport and recreational facilities. Efforts will be concentrated in areas where there is an identified large flow of foreign tourist traffic.
15.31. An outlay of Rs. 36 crores is proposed for Tourism including Rs. 25 crores for the Central programmes and Rs. 11 crores for the States and Unions Territories. The provision in the Central Plan includes Rs. 14 crores for programmes of the Central Department of Tourism and Rs. 11 crores for programmes of the India Tourism Development Corporation. The programme of the Central Department of Tourism mainly provides for loans to the hotel industry in the private sector, loans for the purchase of tourist vehicles by private operators and integrated development of selected centers. The programme of the India Tourism Development Corporation provides for construction of hotels, motels and cottages, renovation and ex-pension of tourist bungalows and setting up of transport units and duEy-free shops. In the State Plans, provision has been made largely for creating facilities for home tourists. The programme provides for construction of low-income rest houses, development of important tourist centres and publicity.
15.32. An outlay of Rs. 520 crores is proposed for development of communications :
Table 11 Outlay for Communications
The demand for telephones has been increasing rapidly on account of several factors, such as expansion of industry and commerce and growing urbanisation. The number of telephones at the beginning of the Fourth Plan was about 1.1 million. During the Fourth Plan period, an addition of about 760,000 telephone connections is envisaged. For the development of trunk telephone services, it is proposed to install 7000 route kilomstres of co-axial system, 12,000 route kilometres of the micro-wave system and 17,300 lines for trunk automatic exchanges. The Plan provides for about 31,000 new post offices. Expansion of the telephone factory at Bangalore and the setting up of a new factory for manufacture of long distance transmission equipment at Naini are envisaged. The Hindustan Teleprinters Limited is expected to have manufacturing capacity of 8,500 teleprinter units per annum by the end of the Plan as against the production of 5010 units in 1968-69.
15.33. So far as the Overseas Communications Service is concerned, the objective is to provide stable wide band telecommunication channels to satisfy the rapidly growing needs for external telecommunication facilities. It is proposed to set up an additional satellite earth station at Delhi, besides completing the satellite earth station at Arvi near Poona.
15.34. A provision of Rs. 40 crores has been made for expansion of broadcasting facilities. The total cost of the programme to be undertaken during the Plan period is estimated at Rs. 45 crores and there will be a spill-ovei to the extent of Rs. 5 crores beyond 1973-74. The programms aims at extension of medium-wave coverage, development and strengthening of the external services and extension of commercial broadcasting on a regional basis. The programme for the extension of internal coverage has been so drawn up that at the end of the Fourth Plan, nearly 80 per cent of the population in all the States and Union Territories would be covered by medium-wave broadcasts. Under external services, the Plan makes provision for the completion of the two super-power medium wave transmitters at Calcutta and Rajkot, and the establishment of two new 250 KW short-wave transmitters at Aligarh. Provision has been made for the construction of a new broadcasting house at Delhi to meet the need for studio facilities and ether office accommodation fur the External and News Services Divisions of All India Radio, Commercial broadcasting will be extended on a regional basis with the main centres located at Lucknow, Ahmedabad, Bhopal, Jaipur, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Trivandrum, Jullundur and Sringar. The programme for television envisages the strengthening of the existing facilities at Delhi and the extension of television to five new centres, namely, Bombay (with relay facilities at Poona), Calcutta, Madras, Kanpur/Lucknow and Srinagar.
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