|6th Five Year Plan||
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|| Planning Commission
The strategies of development in the irrigation sector during the Sixth Five Year Plan will be broadly as follows:
10.2 Irrigation contributes substantially to the agricultural price stability, by removing to a large extent the elements of uncertainty in the agricultural production. Therefore, expansion in irrigation would be envisaged as a part of a price stabilization policy.
10.3 When planning started in 1950-51, irrigation schemes were divided into three categories; major, costing more than Rs. 5 crores each; medium, costing individually between Rs. 10 lakhs and Rs. 5 crores;and minor, costing less than Rs. 10 lakhs each. According to the revised classification in vogue since April 1978, projects having CCA (culturable command area) of more than 10,000 ha. each are classified as major projects, those having CCA between 2,000 ha. and 10,000 ha. as medium schemes and the schemes having CCA of less than 2,000 ha. each are categorised as minor irrigation schemes. This classification has helped to adjust the technical and administrative scrutiny of irrigation schemes according to their magnitude and complexity.
10.4 The development of irrigation upto the end of 1979-80 is shown in the table below:
potential & utilisation 195080
10.5 The outlays during successive Plan periods and the development of irrigation potential therefrom are shown in the table below:
Table 10.2 Outlay on Development of Irrigation Potential
Rs. 80 crores incurred during the pre-plan period.; **Government
10.6 The development of irrigation has been considered under the four broad sub-divisions as follows:
MAJOR AND MEDIUM IRRIGATION REVIEW
10.7 Inspite of the large investment made in the irrigation sector and the phenomenal growth of irrigation during the past 30 years, the return from the investment both in terms of yield as well as finance are very disappointing. Irrigated land should yield at least 4 to 5 tonnes of grains per hectare per year. However, at present it is hardly 1.7 tonnes on an average. Actual yield levels are lower than the levels of 4 to 5 tonnes achieved in National Demonstrations and by experiments in water management projects where appropriate water management and other cultural practices were maintained at optimum levels. Intensive education programme for the farmers through demonstration and extension services is necessary in water management at farm level and other cultural practices. Irrigation projects are unable to recover even working expenses in most of the States. It has been estimated that on an average, the States are losing more than Rs. 427 crores per year on their irrigation investments. The reasons for this situation are many. The first and the foremost is the delay in completion of schemes. Some of the schemes have been lingering for more than 15 to 20 years. To name a few, Nagarjunasagar Project (Andhra Pradesh), Gandnk and Kosi Projects (Bihar), Malaprabha Project (Karnataka), Kallada Project (Kerala), Tawa Project (Madhya Pradesh), Rajasthan Canal Project and Kangsabati Project (West Bengal).
10.8 Another reason is the delay in utilisation of the potential already created. In most of the projects, there has been delay in construction of field channels and water courses, land levelling and land shaping. Supplies to the farmers have not been assured due to deficiency in the canal systems and the absence of field channels. In some of the projects, the crop patterns originally envisaged have proved unsuitable. In a few others, the introduction of irrigation has created water logging and salinity. Farmers havs been very reluctant to adopt improved crop practices like high yielding seeds, fertilizer application, pesticides etc.
10.9 The delay in completion of projects has contributed in no small measure to the increase in cost of projects, upsetting the schedule of completion of a number of projects. The States have taken up a number of new projects spreading their resources thinly over these, instead of taking up a few projects at a time and completing them quickly and then take up new projects. This tendency of taking up a large number of projects, when adequate resources are not in sight, has to be avoided.
10.10 In the context of the delay .in utilisation of irrigation potential and low yield from such areas, government introduced the command area development programme. This broadly consisted of development of irrigation through land levelling and land shaping, construction of field channels, introduction of Wara-bandi system of water distribution and popularisation of integrated soil-crop-water management practices. The progress made under the command area development is discussed separately in this Chapter.
10.11 In addition to the command area development programme, expert technical groups from the Centre have been visiting various projects and identifying the bottlenecks and deficiencies in the development of irrigation. Some of the broad observations made ^y these teams after inspecting 20 irrigation projects are:
STRATEGY FOR THE SIXTH PLAN
10.12 During the Sixth Plan period, the highest priority will be given to the improvement of productivity per unit of water in the areas already covered with the irrigation arrangements including attention to the problems arising from salinity and water logging. Work on the command area development, introduction of Warabandi system of water distribution, popularisation of crop soil-water management practices will be encouraged. Advance action will be taken for research by agricultural universities for developing cropping and land management systems for effective use of irrigation water so that water becomes a blessing and not a curse.
10.13 Higest priority will be given to the completion of all unfinishedyrigation projects as speedily as possible. For this purpose, the on going approved projects will be adequately funded. The construction programme will have to be finn and the project organisations have to prepare yearwise physical and financial programmes for each project indicating the requirements of balance investigations, data collection, design's, equipment, key construction materials, cost review, staff etc. All efforts are to be made to utilise the outlays fully. It is, therefore, proposed to continue earmarking the outlays for selected approved major irrigation projects to ensure their timely completion. In addition, new starts will be made particularly in the drought prone, tribal and backward areas. Inter-State differences in relation to the use of water has to be resolved speedily to facilitate development of irrigation resources. Special steps will 'be taken for ground water development which are discussed in a separate section in this Chapter.
10.14 High priority has to be given to analysing and identifying the problems in each project under each zone so that there would be optimisation of benefits from the irrigation resources already created and to be created in future. This will be achieved through the 'following activities:
10.15 The losses at the storage or the diversion point has to be kept to the minimum by judicious operation of storage reservoirs. Utilisation of storage supply to the maximum extent before the onset of hot weather season will be the aim for efficient use of storage waters. Losses in the distribution system shall be minimised by resorting to selective lining looking into the performance of each reach 'of the distribution system. In such of the projects where adequate and timely supply of coal for burning bricks required for lining or where supply of cement for cement concrete lining have become a bottleneck, lining with alternative materials like rubber or plastic sheets or similar materials may be tried if technically and economically justified. The efficient use of irrigation water on the field involves study of many factors including the soils, their physical and chemical conditions, water requirements of various crops, irrigation practice and drainage needs. Selection of proper crops and cropping patterns based on agro-climatic conditions will be made. Proper land shaping and land levelling with adequate drainage facility, construction of field channels for eliminating field to field losses, selection of suitable method of irrigation to help efficient use or water on the field will be provided. Proper scheduling of irrigation will be necessary to ensure high yields and high efficiency in the irrigation water use. In areas where water resources are in excess of land resources, irrigation will be supplied on optimum level in order to obtain maxi-mum^yield per unit of land. In areas where water resources are deficient compared to land resources, the irrigation scheduling shall be done to obtain maximum production per unit of water. The scheduling of water will be so tailored to ensure water supply at such stages of crop growth which are more critical in their demand for water so that crop growth and quality do not suffer seriously. Consolidation of holdings for better land and water management will be continued vigorously. It is 'necessary to train the irrigation engineers in the soiF an'd water management practices. Suitable institutions for training in-service engineers will be set up in the States "and also at the Centre. The services available at the organisations |&e Water Technology Centre and the various agricultural universities will be availed of in the training programme.
10.16 Conjunctive use of surface and ground water [resources will be adopted for optimising benefits from the available water resources. In the States of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal, there is scope for increased development of surface and ground water resources. In order to derive the maximum benefits from the conjunctive use of surface and ground waters, it will be necessary to mobilise institutional investments and also to provide the necessary infrastructural facilities, the most important of which is proper tie up with energy supply.
10.17 Apart from the expeditious and efficient harnessing of the locally available water resources formulation of a National Plan would be necessary to transfer waters from one system to another in order to utilise the surplus waters to meet the needs of drought prone and water deficit areas in the country. The need for transfer of waters from one basin for utilising part of the surplus water to meet the needs of the drought prone areas in the country has been recognised. The Central Water Commission has already taken up studies to determine the quantum of shortages 'and surpluses in location and time in each river basin and sub-basin. These studies will include, among others, identification of drought prone areas, availability of water at present, potential of harnessing further water available locally and possibilities of transferring waters from areas having surplus water. Proposals for inter-linking of rivers are also being studied and work in this regard will be continued in the Sixth Plan.
10.18 Gross receipts from irrigation are currently insufficient to cover even the working expenses in most of the States. It will be necessary for the State Governments to revise the water rates so that the return recommended by the Seventh Finance Commission is achieved.
10.19 Recently the system of monitoring selected major irrigation projects has been introduced. The Central Water Commission has been suitably strengthened. The projects are periodically inspected and the deficiencies and bottlenecks in their implementation are brought to the notice of Government. States have also to set up monitoring cells at the project level and state level for close monitoring of projects at intervals of about six months to ensure that the targets are achieved according to the time schedule. The Centre is also taking steps for arranging scarce materials like cement, steel and explosives. Project authorities are being advised to prepare operational plans of tlie system so that their efficiencies could be watched and improved from year to year.
10.20 Cost Control Cells are required to be set up at State/project level. A detailed work plan for each project for each year will be necessary.
10.21 In a country as vast as ours with diversified topography and availability of water resources, both surface and ground^ there is bound to be some disparity and imbalance in the development of irrigation facilities. In addition, historical reasons like different types of administration in different parts of the country, have contributed in no small measure to the regional imbalances. Some of the States which had good administrations have progressed far ahead of the States who have to investigate the schemes and then take them up. During the past three decades, a number of steps have been taken to correct this imbalance as far as possible. States have been encouraged to take up investigations in a big way. Even so, a look at the development of irrigation facilities in different States would indicate that some States like Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu have progressed ahead of others whereas States like Madhya Pradesh, Mahara-shtra and Gujarat have got a long way to go. However, it is gratifying that efforts are now being made in these States also to catch up with the progress made in other parts of the country and a large number of schemes are being taken up and larger outlays are being provided for irrigation development in successive years.
10.22 In addition to the efforts being made by the States, as already stated, the Centre is continuing studies for transfer of water from one river basin to another, particularly from the surplus basins to the deficit areas prone to drought according to guide lines earlier agreed to by Planning Commission. A national perspective for water resources development is being initiated in the Ministry of Irrigation and CWC which when implemented will go a long way in correcting much of the regional imbalances seen today.
10.23 There are number of old irrigation projects and even those constructed recently which are not able to meet the irrigation requirements of the cropping patterns developed, due to excessive transit losses and inadequacy of regulatory structures. In some reaches, the canal capacities become a constraint. It is important to remedy these defects by undertaking a modernisation programme, which would include lining, construction of regulatory structures etc. so that reouirements of crop in the peak periods are met with and productive agriculture coupled with the use of fertilizers and other inputs becomes possible.
10.24 Provision of adequate drainage is of vital importance for realising full benefits of irigation. What is needed is an adequate net work of main drains, intermediate drains and field drains. It is necessary that the main drains and the intermediate drains are constructed first, preferably as a part of the irrigation project as the Tunctioning of the field drains is dependent on the prior construction of intermediate and main drains.of late, there has been a large scale denudation of vegetation and forests in the catchment areas of reservoirs of irrigation projects, As a result, inflow of sediment into the reservoirs has increased. The life of the reservoirs will consequently be shorter than that assumed at the implementation stage. Overgrazing, faulty agricultural practices and indiscriminate felling of trees have been the major contributing factors for this malady. It is, therefore, necessary to take up urgently soil conservation measures in the catchment areas of irrigation reservoirs. Outlays for soil conservation programme are provided under the agricultural sector.
10.25 Projects built so far were comparatively easier and simpler. The projects to be taken up hereinafter will be more complex in nature and have to be built in difficult terrains and locations. With a view to execute these projects in a safe and economical manner, it is necessary that considerable research is carried out on various aspects of construction of dams, canal systems and their management. The importance of such research has been well recognised by most of the State Governments. The Central Government has two research institutes, one at Pune and the other in New Delhi. In addition, a number of universities and autonomous bodies are also being encouraged to take up research problems connected with irrigation development. The Central Board of Irrigation and Power, a registered society, has been playing a coordinating role in encouraging research and providing results of the research studies directly to the various users. The Central Government has been assisting such research activity by giving grant assistance to specific basic research programmes related to river valley projects. Recently, the Government of India has set up a National Institute of Hydrology to act as nodal institution for fundamental and advanced research in the field of hydrology, to act as a data bank and assist the State Governments in adopting modem techniques in hydrological investigations and analysis.
10.26 The Central Water Commission has, in association with the National Remote Sensing Agency, taken up a number of studies in the application of space technology for water resources development. Such application would result in substantial saving in time and effort in the development of water resources.
10.27 With the rapid expansion of irrigation facilities and the increase in tempo of investment in irrigation, there is an urgent need for training the irrigation personnel both in methods of construction and in efficient operation of management of the completed systems. It is with a view to achieve better efficiency and organisational control, schemes for establishing staff training colleges have been recommended. Some of the States have already established such colleges or institutes, and others are in the process of doing so. It is recommended that no more time is lost in establishing these institutions. At the Centre, the Central Water Commission has a proposal t" start a staff training college as an apex body for imparting advanced training and refresher courses in the various aspects oT the water resources development. Efforts will however, be made to utilise the infrastructure facilities already available in some of the institutions, such as the Roorkee University, the Indian Institute of Technology, the Water Technology Centre, New Delhi and some of the leading engineering and agricultural institutions. Considering the problems now being faced and to be faced in the future, there is urgent need of imparting training to our serving engineers and also the new recruits on the intricacy and efficient management of water resources. As stated in the Sixth Plan Framework, optimum productivity per unit of water in area irrigated is the only answer to the large investments being made in this sector. This can be achieved if the persons building such schemes, operating and managing them are trained. The amount spent in organising such training and refresher courses would go a long way in improving the efficiency of our irrigation systems.
10.28 Execution of irrigation programme affords a large scope for providing employment, particularly in the rural areas. Construction of irrigation projects involves excavation of large network of small channels apart from construction of large masonry and concrete structures and large canals. In such types of works, manual construction methods utilising large number of unskilled and skilled labour are invariably used. There are, however, certain types of works such as large dams and special types of hydraulic structures where mechanisation of construction methods is inescapable with a view to ensure completion of the project within a reasonable period and also to ensure the quality of work. In the execution of projects during the next five years, although maximum stress would be on adopting labour intensive methods of construction, resort to mechanised construction would also be necessary and in some cases obligatory. Adoption of such combination cf technology will enable achieving the twin objectives of creating maximum employment as well as achieving benefits within a reasonable time schedule, making optimum use of men and machines. Already there are some excellent examples of the use of combination of technology at Nagarjunasagar dam and Rajasthan Canal Project, Kadana Dam, where use of human resources, animals and most sophisticated construction equipment has been made with spectacular results. In view of the rural unemployment problem, resort would have to be made to such techniques in future programmes to as large extent as possible.
10.29 In the priority task for future development of irrigation, mention has also to be made of the problems pertaining to maintenance of completed works. In regard to public irrigation projects including major, medium and minor, the problem primarily relates to inadequacy of budgetary allocations made for main tenance in the non-Plan sector of the States. The consensus arrived at various forums is that atleast Rs. 50 per ha. of the gross irrigated area or the cultivable commanded area whichever is more, has to be provided annually for proper and efficient maintenance of flow irriagtion systems. The actual prevailing allocations are far less. The deficit in maintenance has to be met as speedily as possible. It is suggested that the State Governments may consider setting up of dam safety cells with a view to building up appropriate expertise at State level to identify areas requiring special attention and initiate timely action to remedy any deTect detrimental to the safety of the dam. A large number of irrigation projects have already been constructed in the country and arc under operation. So far, much headway has not been made in evaluating the impact of irrigation projects on socio-economic aspects and on environment. Such studies will help in water planning, project formulations, appraisals and implementation. It is, therefore, suggested that the States may initiate action to take up the study of impact of irrigation projects on the socio-economic aspects and environment. During the past few years, scarcity of steel, cement and coal hag hampered the progress of irrigation and multi-purpose project's. Steps have been taken to strcan'Jinc the demand and allocation of these scarce materials. It is hoped that in the coming years the progress of the'se projects will not be affected.
10.30 An outlay of Rs. 8448.36 crores is proposed to be invested on major and medium irrigation projects. Bulk of this outlay will be in the State sector with only a sum of Rs. 90 crores being in the Central sector. Anncxurc 10.1 and 10.2 give the state-wise break-up of outlays and the benefits likely to be achieved. The Central Sector outlay is mainly for strengthening the Central Water Commission, the Central Research Stations and observation of river flows at key gauging sites.
10.31 The outlays
With the above outlay, an additional irrigation potential of 5.7 million hectares is proposed to be created.
10.32 While every effort is being made to complete the ongoing projects because of the fact that some of the States have taken up a large number of projects already arid there is a constraint of resources, a few projects will spill over into the Seventh Plan. An-nexures 10.4 and 10.5 show the list of approved major projects started before 1-4-1976 that are likely to be completed in the Sixth Plan and those that are likely to spill over into the Seventh Plan respectively.
MINOR IRRIGATION REVIEW
10.33 Upto the end of the Fourth Five Year Plan, the total cropped area which benefitted from minor irrigation was assessed at 23.5 m. ha. During the Fi.fth Five Year Plan 1974-79 against an increase of 5 m. ha. envisaged additional potential created during four years of the Plan (197478) was 3.8 m. ha. By the end of 1977-78, the level achieved under minor irrigation coverage, therefore was 27.3 m. ha. and during 197880 additional potential created is about 2.7 m. ha. The physical achievements on some of the important items are as follows:
Minor Irrigation Programme suffered a setback on account of shortage of EC grade aluminium slowing down the electrification programme which was most vital for ground water development and surface lift irrigation schemes. Besides, some of the States were proceeding fast with ground water development like Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab and Tamil Nadu and had to slow down the pace considerably because many pockets of these States were reaching saturation stage in respect of ground water potential. On the other hand States like Assam, Binar, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, U.P. and West Bengal where considerable ground water potential was available could not move fast on account of comparatively low level of electrification, weak cooperative structure and insufficient flow of institutional credit.
STRATEGY FOR THE SIXTH PLAN
10.34 The deep tubewells will be executed mostly from the public sector. The other programmes will require institutional investments. While ithe flow of institutional credit has not been picking up at the desired rate in the States of Eastern and North Eastern region, the tempo has been going down in many other States due to deteriorating recovery position of the banks. It is, therefore, evident that special measures would be necessary to step up 'the flow of institutional investments.
10.35 The following steps are proposed to be taken in this context:
10.36 No precise assessment of private investment in minor irrigation during Fifth Plan 197478 and 1978-79 and 1979-80 annual plans is available. It will be useful to undertake some studies to gauge investment in the minor irrigation by private sector so as to assess the total investment likely to take place in the next Plan period.
10.37 The programme of minor irrigation development will have the following components:
(i) Ground Water exploration and Exploitation:
(ii) Integrated/Conjunctive planning and utilisation of surface and ground water.
(iii) Special measures for conservation of conventional energy.
(iv) Action Plan for extending the benefits to weaker sections and development of the backward areas.
(v) Improved maintenance.
(vi) Measures for improved utilisation of irrigation potential created.
(vii) Research and Development efforts; and
(viii) Strengthening administrative and field organisation for survey, planning, design and execution of Minor Irrigation Programme,
10.38 Survey and Investment work will have to be stepped up especially in the North Eastern Region so that an adequate number of projects are formulated for implementation. These investigations would also help the States to put ground water exploitation on a more systematic and rational basis which has been lagging far behind the available potential. As referred to earlier, in some area in States like Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab and Tamil Nadu, the lowering of water table is already posing serious problems. The necessary measures to control over exploitation may have to be considered seriously by these States.
10:39 Surface water projects may be planned on watershed basis with due emphasis on integration with small head-water tanks necessary for soil and water conservation. Works may be integrated with social forestry and contour bunding with a view to reduce the rate of siltation in the reservoirs.
10.40 Investigations in the tribal area will be accelerated and effort shall be made to complete all surveys of ground water potential in a period of ten years. The present norms in regard to construction will be reviewed in order to ensure that these do not come in the way of implementing feasible schemes in these areas. In selected surface Minor Irrigation and deep tube-well schemes a complete package of measures based on Command area approach is required to be undertaken to serve as models and motivate the cultivators in the adjoining areas. Work of construction of field channels upto the last holding shall be accelerated. Formulation of water user associations to handle jobs such as distribution of irrigation water according to the agreed turn-schedule, carrying out on-farm development (OFD) works and maintenance of field channel will be encouraged.
10.41 Rural electrification coupled with assured supply of power is a vital input for accelerating minor irrigation programme. There will be closer synchronisation between the rural electrification programme and the development of the lilt irrigation to achieve quick progress. Imposition of power restriction in irrigated agriculture will be avoided, as far as, possible. Efforts will be directed to increase the efficiency of the pump sets, particularly those used by the farmers, by selection of appropriate size of motors, pumps, suction and delivery heads. Guidelines are proposed to be issued for the use of the farmers.
10.42 In the planning and evaluation of ground water schemes on a scientific basis, special attention by the ground water organisations in the States is essential for extending technical guidance to the farmers on the basis of manuals, guidelines, type design, location and construction of wells, tubewells etc., and adopting suitable mechanism for selection and pricing of pumpsets.
10.43 For integrated conjunctive planning and utilisation it is essential to have simultaneously utilisation of surface and ground water resources through a judicious combination of surface irrigation projects and ground water schemes, keeping in view the overall estimate of available water resources, the infrastructure of irrigation facilities already available, agricultural setting and potentialities of the region and the long term needs of irrigation and other competitive uses.
10.44 State tubewells and other irrigation works will be taken up on priority basis in the public sector in areas where population of scheduled castes is high and in tribal areas. Areas with preponderance of small and marginal farmers will also receive special attention.
10.45 Satisfactory arrangements for maintenance, particularly of smaller surface water projects are still lacking. It is necessary that engineering department which is responsible for maintenance of bigger minor irrigation projects is more actively involved in the maintenance of smaller projects also and provide with adequate maintenance grants to carry out the maintenance works satisfactorily. Maintenance/irrigation charges will be realised by the Government from the beneficiaries. The field agencies may come together to form a broad based complex of repair shops, spare parts depots and mobile units for providing service and repair facilities for tubewells and pump sets.
10.46 The following recommendations made by the National Commission on Agriculture 1976 on maintenance needs to be given particular attention:
(a) (i) In case of tanks maintained by the Department, the annual maintenance grant's often fall short of the requirements; these need to be suitably increased in view of the price increase and taking into consideration the actual requirements for proper sustained maintenance.
(ii) Where Panchayats are responsible for maintenance of tanks, they have to raise sufficient financial resources through water charges for satisfactorily maintaining the tanks and employ sufficient staff for the purpose.
(iii) A suitable legislation for recovering water charges from beneficiaries of tank irrigation at present exempt under "Fardabpashi" and "Wajib-ul-arz" in order to cover maintenance cost of the tanks is necesary.
(iv) The circle system of inspection and repairs of tanks as in vogue in erstwhile Madras State is to be introduced in all States which have fairly large tank irrigation.
(b) The smaller works that are still expected to be maintained by the beneficiaries themselves will be brought under the orbit of some organisations such as the Irrigation Department, Panchayati Raj Department, Rural Engineering organisation, etc. to ensure that maintenance gets adequate attention.
(c) The whole field of administration and management of public tubewells and lift irrigation projects will be given special attention to remove the existing deficiencies. Drastic administrative measures are to be taken to control the thefts of transformers and conductors. Special watch may be kept during the periods of keen irrigation demand.
(d) Progressive young farmers will be specifically trained in handling mechanical and electrical equipment in carrying out petty repairs on the spot for their pumps/tube-wells. Concerned departments of the State and organisations will back up this programme.
Central Ground Water Development Corporation
10.47 The Central Ground Water Board has three important functions in respect of Ground Water Development viz., (i) survey and investigation (ii) assessment and monitoring of acquirers and (iii.) exploratory tubewells. While the Board has been doing very useful work in providing scientific data for ground water development in various parts of the country according to the varying lithology, its direct involvement in the implementation of ground water development schemes in the country has been very marginal. During times of emergency, like the drought in the various parts of the country in 1979, the Board had not been able to render sufficient assistance in drilling wells in the affected areas on account of paucity of rigs. The demand for the deposit wells to be drilled by the Central Ground Water Board is increasing from States as also from Central Government Departments. Corporation etc. It is, therefore, proposed to set up a Central Ground Water Corporation with head quarters located in a backward area like Basti or Balia in Eastern part of Uttar Pradesh which would take up exploitation of ground water in low utilisation areas. The Corporation, which will work on commercial lines, will not only act as a catalyst for accelerating ground water development in the States but also provide training facilities. To begin with, the Corporation will concentrate its work in the eastern region of the country and part of eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh^, where large untapped ground water potential exists. After the Corporation is set up, the Central Ground Water Board and the New Corporation would function in a mutually supportive manner. The Corporation will endeavour to mobilise institutional finance for ground water development:but initially some equity support would be needed from the Government- In the Sixth Plan, it is proposed to allocate Rs. 20 crores for initial setting up of Corporation and buying of new rigs etc.
10.48 The ultimate potential for development of minor surface irrigation has been broadly assessed at 15m. ha. and for ground water at 40 m. ha. The expected cumulative utilisation under minor surface irrigation till the end of 1979-80 works out to 8 m. ha. and from ground water up to 22 m. ha. The target for the Sixth Five Year Plan 1980-85 is proposed as under:
Keeping in view the loss due to depreciation and siltation of existing works, the gross potential to be created during the Plan period is fixed at 11 m. ha. so that the additional potential net of depreciation and siltation may be 8.0 m. ha. 1.0 m. ha. from surface water and 7.0 m. ha. from groundwater.
10.49 To achieve the large scale development of ground water during the Sixth Plan, the target for various items of the programme will be as under:
It is proposed that the States may take up on priority basis construction of dug wells falling in the vicinity of villages where there is no drinking water supply at all.
An outlay of Rs. 1810.30 crores has been envisaged in the public sector alongwith an institutional investment of the order of Rs. 1700 crores. The State-wise outlays and benefits are indicated in An-nexures 10.1 and 10.3.
COMMAND AREA DEVELOPMENT AND WATER MANAGEMENT
10.50 Considerable investment has been made on major, medium and minor irrigation projects in order to create irrigation potential for increased agriculture production. The utilisation of the potential created has lagged behind for various reasons. For obtaining maximum benefits from irrigation water, it is essential that the command area of the project is fully ready to receive and beneficially use supplies. For this, a comprehensive programme of Command Area Development (CAD) which will include systematic programme of land consolidation, the scientific land shaping, construction of water courses and field channels to carry water to individual fields, field drains to carry surplus water away from the fields and, a system of roads which will enable farmers to carry the produce to the market will be necessary. Besides the above measures, adequate and timely supply of inputs has to be ensured and marketing and other infrastructure facilities created so that the farmers are able to derive optimum benefits from available land and water.
10.51 For removing the above deficiencies and in order to optimise the agricultural production, during the Fifth Plan. a programme for integrated development of command area was launched and Command Area Development Authorities were set up for identified projects. The coverage of CAD is proposed to be increased to more projects during the Sixth Plan. Inspite of this, a great deal of ground still remains to be covered as the task is stupendous. The major functions of these CAD authorities were to be as under:
10.52 During the Fifth Plan 1974-78) command area development authorities covering 50 irrigation projects were set up. These were spread in 108 districts in 13 States and covered about 12.4 million ha. of ultimate irrigation potential. By the end of March, 1980, the total number of projects taken up for command area development increased to 76 which covered an ultimate irrigation potential of 15.3 million ha.^ in 16 States and one Union Territory. The number of CAD Authorities increased to 43 by the end of March, 1980. The area covered under the field channels during the Fifth Plan period was 12,20,150 ha., and under the land levelling and shaping the area was 3,37,480 ha. The area covered under the field channels and land levelling to end of March, 1980 was 30,82,570 ha. and 9,36,970 ha. respectively. In addition, construction of roads, lining of canals, improving the drainage system and construction of deep and shallow tubewells have also been taken up in a number of projects. T&V system of ext< sion has been introduced in a number of projects and modernisation including improvement of drainage have also been undertaken in some projects. Supply of other essential inputs has also been streamlined in the command area.
10-53 The financing of the CAD programme is at present on the following pattern:
(i') Sharing of cost between Union Government and the State Government: Matching share between the Centre and the States in respect of the cost of establishment of CAD authorities, creation of water utilisation cell and CAD Department at State level, soil survey, preparation of farm plans, warabandi, supervision of on farm development works (OFD) and for equity capital support to Land Development Corporations, Farmers' Service Societies to be set up to mobilise institutional credit to farmers for construction of field channels, field drains, land levelling and land shapping and adaptive trials and training. The loan assistance for field channels which was earlier given on a cent percent basis by Union Government was changed during 1979-80 to one of matching basis between the Centre and the States. Crop compensation to farmers for OFD works was also eligible on a matching share between the Centre and the States upto a certain limit.
(ii) Assistance provided by the Union Government: Subsidy for on-farm development works as well as the ground water development to small and marginal farmers on the prevalent basis as in Small Farmer Development Agency (SFDA), Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Scheme (MFAL) or in accordance with the pattern prevalent in the States as well as to disadvantaged farmers. Loan assistance on a matching basis to Aero-Tn-dustries Corporation for procuring equipment for land development in command areas and also equity support to the Corporations dealing" with the eround water development in these areas or loan assistance for the purchase of equipment for executing of ground water development schemes in the Command areas. In addition, subsidy is available for community minor irrigation works in the command areas and for scheduled tribes on the pattern prevalent under the Integrated Rural Development Programme.
(iii) State Government's responsibility: (a) Cost of strengthening the existing extension, training and demonstration organisations.
(b) Cost .of strengthening of infrastructures including communication system to handle the increased production.
(c) Re-modelling and modernisation of a delivery system above one cusec outlet as well as provision of intermediate and major drainage.
(d) Creation of basic infrastructure like land for markets etc., and debenture contributions for cooperative institutions.
(e) Maintenance of roads, drainage and irrigation system in the command area.
(iv) Special fund for financing OFD works .in case of ineligible farmers: For financing OFD works in the case of ineligible farmers, a special loan fund has been created which would be contributed by the Union Government. State Governments and ARDC in the ratio of 37.5:37.5:25. The fund would be jointly administered by the three agencies.
STRATEGY FOR THE SIXTH PLAN
10.54 The main aim of the programme is to reduce the gap between created irrigation potential and utilisation thereof and to optimise agricultural production through better management of land and water in the command areas of Irrigation Projects. Apart from the 76 on-going schemes some more projects will be included under the Programme in order to further hasten utilisation of irrigation potential created on projects, particularly those in the pipeline for assistance from the international institutions. Farmers should be associated closely in the command area development activities, particularly in land levelling and shaping, construction of field channels and distribution of water equitably. This can be attempted if in each village or under a minor, farmers' association is formed alongwith representatives of the irrigation and CAD departments. In order to ensure optimum use of land and water, strong and sustained linkages need to be developed amongst the Canal Management Authorities, Command Area Development Authorities and the farmers. The cooperatives of the farmers need to be encouraged not only for water distribution but also for providing inputs to agriculture and for marketing the produce. There should be joint consultations with regard to planning of crops for each season as well as during appropriate stage of distribution of water. A sense of involvement will go a long way in the speedy achievement of results and better management of the water resources. Already Gujarat has made an effort in forming farmers cooperative for distribution of water. They take water in bulk from the irrigation department and distribute it amongst the members. This has resulted in better efficiency in use of water. Based on the experience gaf.ned from the projects taken up so far, following components of the Programme will require special attention:
(a) Intensification of the modernisation of the pre-plan and earlier plan irrigation systems, with a view to achieving better return from them.
(b) Drainage is to be given high priority.
(c) The on-farm development works should continue to be given priority. As was decided earlier, considering the fact that complete package of OFD Programme is time-consuming and as it is essential to ensure that water reaches every field at the earliest, it is proposed to continue implementation of this Programme in two stages.
(i) Construction of field channels on a priority basis along the ridges predetermined for subsequent consolidation programme without waiting for the realignment and consolidation of holdings. Funds for the construction of field channels would also be available from the major and medium irrigation sector, as field channels would be constructed up-to 8/5 ha. block as a part of the irrigation projects. The maintenance of the field channels would, however, continue to be the responsibility of the farmers themselves.
(ii) Land levelling and shaping including consolidation of holdings, realignment of field boundaries.
(d) In most of the States up-dating of the land records has to be accelerated.
(e) Construction of essential roads in the Command area may be taken up on priority under the Rural Roads Programme. So far as the taking up of road construction as a part of the CAD programme is concerned, recommendations made by a Technical Group set up by Planning Commission to look into the norms and specifications for such roads could form the basis for such programmes.
(f) Ancillary activities like development of marketing and processing facilities, animal husbandry, farm forestry etc. have to be organised by the CAD authorities for integrated development of the area.
(g) Proper operation of irrigation system and timely scheduling of irrigation supplies, enforcement of warabandi (turn schedule) with farmers' participation and adequate . legal and administrative backing.
(h) To determine the best package of practices for different crons in different aero-climatic conditions, adaptive trials would have to be carried out extensively bv the Project authorities.
(i) Enactment of enabling legislation, which would facilitate flow of institutional credit for land levelling/shaping works where-ever it has not been done so far.
(j) A review of the procedure for obtaining institutional finances will have to be made and the procedures streamlined so that the farmers are able to get institutional finance within a short time.
(k) For all-round development, it is necessary that CAD authorities are set up on other projects also and to make these authorities more effective, it would be essential to strengthen them so that adequate coordination can be brought about.
(l) Attention is required to be given to diversification of crop pattern within the existing commands so that water is put to optimum use and productivity of land increased. During such diversification attention would have to be given to production of oil seeds, pulses, etc., to eliminate as far as possible their shortage.
10.55 It is proposed to cover an area of about one million ha. under on-farm development works for land levelling/shaping. In respect of field channels, it is proposed to cover an area of 4 million hectares during the Plan period. In addition, modernisation of irrigation system including improvement of drainage arrangements, development of conjunctive use wherever feasible, integration with other sectoral development programmes including Rural Roads etc., would also be achieved.
10.56 Water Management occupies a key role in the steps to be taken in the coming years. The objective of water management in irrigated agriculture is to provide suitable moisture and environment to the crops to obtain optimum yields with corresponding maximum economy. This technology is location specific and is governed by the nature and extent of water availability, soil and climatic conditions and the terrain of the area, to be irrigated. It differs from one area to another. With the extension of irrigation facilities and advent of high yielding varieties, the cropping pattern in different parts of the country has been undergoing a considerable change. The demand for water has become more exacting and the need for efficient management of land and water is. therefore, most imperative. It is proposed to achieve efficiency in use of water by employing appropriate water lifting devices for delivering adequate quantities of water at the required time. Sprinkler and drip irrigation systems will be used in areas where agro-climatic conditions permit economic and efficient use of these devices. The role of Irrigation Engineers, Agricultural Scientists and others engaged in managing irrigated agriculture, in such a changing situation has become more difficu1! and complex. It is, in this context that a scientific and pragmatic approach to the problem of water management has assumed great significance. While efforts are being made under the Command Area Development Programme to improve the water management on the field, research activities relating to various aspects of water management have to be stepped up. It is also necessary to lay greater emphasis on teaching the subject of water mana ment in Universities and colleges which impart courses in Irrigation and Irrigated Agriculture.
10.57 The management of irrigation systems should aim at the following broad objectives:
The entire concept of efficient water management should aim at better use of land and water resources for the greatest good of the farming community and this can be achieved only when the farmers are actively involved in planning aind n-Magement of the land and water resources. There has to be a beneficial interaction between the irrigation and command area development administrations and the farmers. This interaction should be concurrent and continuous. Then only one can hope for the optimum results as a result of the introduction of irrigation.
FLOOD CONTROL REVIEW
10.58 The investment made in the flood control sector from the First Plan to the end of the Fifth Plan (1977-78) was of the order of Rs. 640 crores. The anticipated expenditure during 1978-80 was Rs. 330 crores. The area provided with reasonable protection from floods till the end of the Fifth Plan was about 10 million ha., which was expected to eo ur> to 11 million ha. till the end of March, 1980 Besides, 264 towns have been protected and 4,700 villages raised above flood level by the end of March, 1978. It has been noticed that while the outlays for successive Five Year/Annual Plans have been increasing and more and more areas are being protected, the estimated value of damage due to floods has been increasing. According to the Report iof the Rashtriya Barh Ayog (RBA), the total value bf damages at current prices was Rs. 3,128 crores for the period 197478 as against Rs. 3,104 crores for the period 195474. To develop long-term strategy on control and management of floods, Governmemt of India had set up the Rashtriya Barh Ayog in 1976. The Ayog in their report submitted to the Government of India in March, 1980 have dealt with the flood problem in a comprehensive manner and have made several recommendations. The recommendations of the Commission are currently under examination by the Ministry of Irrigation. Flood forecasting and warning to areas that may be affected T?y floods is necessary so that the population in these areas can be evacuated in time and loss of life and property minimised. Considerable progress has been made im flood 'forecasting and fore-warning the population that may be affected.
STRATEGY FOR THE SIXTH PLAN
10.59 Although under the various laws there is authority to prevent encroachements of the flood plains, there seems to be quite a lot of haphazard and unauthorised encroachments which have been on the increase obviously on account of pressure of population. These lead to additional damage in some other area due to restriction of the flood plain. Sometimes, the protected areas behind the embankments get affected under abnormally high intensity of floods resulting in breaches in the existing embankments. Further, while the flood plain is to be kept free from encroachments, even valuable constructions have been going on in such areas. Values of properties !and crops damaged have also been continuously rising. These have resulted in larger damage monetarily when the floods are serious. It has not been possible to adopt a rational and practical basis for estimating the flood damage and collection of statistics on a uniform basis. Encroachments in the riverine areas have not been identified. There is also no master chart from which the administration can judge the exact areas which will get affected by floods of different intensities. Thus, the basic data and knowledge for dealing scientifi-cally with the flood problem has many gaps. The construction of embankments and improvement of drainage in the areas actually affected by floods, though provide some immediate and direct benefits in alleviating the actual suffering of the people, these do not appear to bring assured and lasting benefits to them.
10.60 One of the important causes of occurrence of floods viz., the devastation of forests and lack of other conservative measures on the catchment areas of the rivers leading to heavy soil erosion and consequent increase in silt load in rivers, has not so far received adequate attention. As a measure of silt control ifi. some of the big reservoirs already constructed, some soil conservation measures in the catchment areas have been carried out during the last 15 years. It is now agreed that soil conservation and afforestation measures will be necessary in the catchment areas of all the rivers which are creating flood havoc. During 1976-77 and 1977-7'8, a new scheme of watershed management was taken up in the Himalayan Region. It is essential to extend this programme to the other catchments of floodprone rivers where this has not been taken up so far. These measures, besides retarding the run-off, will lead to control of silt inflow into the river which create unstable conditions in the regimes of the rivers. Implementation of the programme involves multi-disciplinary ^approach and will require experts on soil conservation, engineering, forestry and agronomly to work jointly to formulate and execute schemes on sub-watershed basis. The existing organisation in the States will need considerable strengthening, in addition, land use survey teams have to be organised for survey and identification of critically affected sub-watersheds which will require priority treatment.
10.61 Whi.le it may take some time to process the recommendations of Rashtriya Barh Ayog, the Flood Control Programme in the Sixth Five Year Plan has been evolved keeping broadly the recommendations of the Commission in view. The measures would continue to be flood forecasting and warning systems, new embankments, drainage improvement, soil conservation including afforestation etc., to be funded from the respective sectors.
10.62 It is proposed to provide reasonable flood protection for 4 million ha. during the Sixth Plan period. Towns and important installations which are threatened by floods and erosion would also 'be protected.
10.63 Completion of continuing Schemes. Completion of continuing schemes including priority flood control works is the first priority. Some of the schemes of the Fourth Plan have still not been completed. Some of the major schemes which have been lingering on areLower Damodar Scheme, Mograhat Basin Drainage Scheme in West Bengal, Buxar-Koilwar Embankment Scheme, Bagmati Embankment Scheme in Bihar, Tapi Embankment Scheme in Gujarat, Krishna Godavari Delta Dr;ainage Scheme in Andhra Pradesh, Lucknow Town Protection Works in UP, Improvement of Jhelum outfall channel in Jammu & Kashmir etc. It is essential that all on-going projects are reviewed as quickly as possible to identify which of them are even now technically feasible and economically justifiable.
10.64 Flood Forecasting: The flood forecasting network in the country will be exte'nded to cover other Inter-State rivers so far not covered by the Central Water Commission. Similariy, there is need to modernise the methods and techniques on this subject. State Governments have also to take up this programme for rivers which lie within the States and which cause floods.
10.65 Preparation of Master Plans: Efforts to prepare long range comprehensive Master Plan will be intensified. The comprehensive plans will not only envisage construction of embankments, improvement of drainage channels in the flood affected areas but also construction of storage reservoirs in the upper catchments and appropriate reservoir regulation to regulate the flood discharges. Such basin-wise Master Plans will be drawn up on a time-bound basis. The States should set up special organisation for the purpose.
10.66 Flood Plain Zoning and Regulation: It is proposed to have large scale contour maps with flood areas delineated for transfer on the ground and for use in flood warning. This will have to be pursued more vigorously as these maps are essential for effective management of flood plains.
10.67 New Schemes: Appropriate priorities will be accorded for inter-state schemes while taking up new schemes by the States. Some Inter-State Schemes have been causing lot of damages. These include the Goverdhan Drainage Scheme in Haiyana, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh; Sahibi Basin, Najafgarh Drainage System in Rajasthan, Haryana and Delhi etc. The participating States have to make adequate provision in the respective Plans to complete such schemes expeditiously. Some Central assistance is likely to be provided for such schemes. New embankment and drainage schemes are to be taken up after very careful examination and for each scheme there must be a time-bound programme of completion.
10.68 Conservation and Afforestation : It is proposed to lay greater emphasis on this programme on water-shed basis in the catchment areas of rivers causing flood.
10.69 Anti-sea Erosion Works : The' Anti-sea Erosion programme in Kerala would be continued. Efforts to check sea-erosion in other coastal States would be intensified.
10.70 Maintenance: In order to stablise the existing benefits from completed works and also to keep the works in a state of fitness, increased attention would need to be given to the maintenance of flood control works. States are to be persuaded to provide adequate funds in their annual budgets on the basis of the recommendations of the Seventh Finance Commission.
10.71 Monitoring: While monitoring of selected major irrigation projects at the Centre, State and Project levels has started during the Fifth Plan period, similar efforts in respect 01 flood control programme have been initiated. It is necessary that all major flood control works and Inter 1 State projects are taken up for monitoring by the Centre and the State during the Sixth Plan period.
10.72 Brahmaputra River Board: Parliament has recently enacted the Brahaanputra River Board Bill for setting up a Statutory Board to look into the flood problems of the Brahmaputra Valley and prepare a master plan for implementation. This will help in tackling one of the most serious problems faced by the North Eastern region and help in the speedy development of that region by control of floods, development of hydro power and irrigation facilities.
DESALINATION OF SEA WATE
10.73 As Water is becoming scarce in most parts of the countrty, particularly in arid and semi-arid areas the question of utilising sea water after desalination assumes importance. A number of scientific institutions in the country are already carrying out research in this field. Mention may be made of Central Salt and Marine Research Institute of Bhavnagar, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, the Indian Council of Agriculture Research (ICAR), Department of Atomic Energy and also a number of individuals and research groups. A lot of research work is also being done in other countries notably in Europe. It is necessary that there is a further expansion of this activity during the Sixth Plan period and pilot studies are taken up for demonstrating the usefulness of desalination. The desalination water will 'be used through drip irrigation method for growing high value crops like vegetables, date palm etc. At the same time effort will be made to find out to what extent the brackish water from the sea could be used for growing crops like millet, bajra and some variety of wheat. The possibility of using sea water by mixing it with fresh water for growing crops like sugar-beet, fodder and some variety of rice may also be explored. In this effort the irrigation research institutes located in the various States and also the Central Water and Power Research Station and the Ministry of Irrigation will be associated. There is also need for taking up a large number of pilot demonstrations on farmers' fields to prove the utility, economy and use of sea water.
10.74 For promoting the scientific use of our land and water resources it is essential that the farmers in each command, watershed and catchment area participate in the development and management of soil and water resources. For this purpose the management of command areas of irrigation projects as well as catchment and watershed areas will be developed on a joint sector approach involving the people of the area and the administration. Technologists have to draw up plan of action in consultation with the local people and help implement the programme. District Level Committees in which representatives of farmers representatives of people and news media, officials and others interested in water resources are fully associated have to be formed. The academic and technical institutions and in particular Agricultural Universities in the area would be fully involved in the preparation of precise action plans. These plans will vary from region to region and it is necessary that close links are maintained with local agricultural experts and agricultural universities in the preparation of action plans.
Outlays on Major and Medium Irrigation, Minor Irrigation and
@ Includes Rs. 2-75 croi-ds lor colonisation.; * Tentative.; + Includes Rs. 5 crures for Area Development.; ++ Includes Rs. 5 crores for Ma.vat Area Development.;
from Major and Medium Irrigation Schemes
from Minor Irrigation Schemes
on-going projects of the Sixth Plan started before 1-4-1976
on-going Projects ot Sixth Planon started before 1-4-1976
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