|6th Five Year Plan||
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|| Planning Commission
Social welfare programmes aim at enabling the deprived sections of the population to overcome their social, economic or physical handicaps and improve their quality ot life. They supplement the developmental programmes in general in dealing with tne problems 01 poverty and unemployment and are meant in particular, to assist the most disadvantaged groups below the poverty line, especially children from poor families, women, the handicapped and the infirm.
28.2 Under 'Social Welfare sector, preventive, developmental and rehabilitative services are provided to the socially and physically handicapped as well as to the vulnerable and weaker sections of the society. These services have developed gradually and the inputs increased steadily during the successive plan periods. In the First Five Year plan, a provision of Rs. 4.00 crores was made and the amount was placed at the disposal of the Central Social Welfare Board, set up in 1953 for encouraging voluntary organisations, especially in the field of women and child welfare. It gave grants-in-aid and technical assistance to the voluntary organisations. It also started Welfare Extension Projects' for providing welfare services to women and children in rural areas.
28.3 The Second Plan with an approved outlay of Rs. 19 crores witnessed the participation of Central and State Governments in addition to the activities of the Central Social Welfare Board. The scope of social welfare was widened so as to include and promote additional activities for welfare of women and children like welfare extension projects in urban and;border areas, condensed courses of education for adult women and socio-economic programmes. For tackling the problem of juvenile delinquency, beggary and vagrancy and immoral traffic in girls and women, the Central Government Sponsored various 'social Defence' schemes and the State Governments were encouraged to implement them with necessary financial support. Special programmes were introduced for the education, training and rehabilitation of the physically handicapped.
28.4 In the Third Plan, the State Governments and the voluntary organisations were associated closely in drawing up the Plan with an outlay of Rs. 31 crores. While providing services, effort was directed in 'particular towards sections of the community which needed special care and protection. The object was to replace individual haphazard relief and charity by organised and sustained activity for education, welfare and rehabilitation with the general support of the community; The resources provided were utilised both for expanding the existing services and for assisting voluntary organisations to continue their activities. To this extent, development of new services tended to be limited.
28.5 The Fourth Plan aimed at the consolidation of the initiatives taken in the previous plans. An outlay of Rs. 41 crores was provided for this purpose. One of the major programmes in operation was the 'Family and Child Welfare Projects' in rural areas. The grants-in-aid programme was utilised to a larger extent than in the past. The 'Social Defence' programmes which were being implemented by the States with financial sup'p'ort from the Central Government were completely transferred to the States for implementation and the Centre continued to give guidance and advice to the States.
28.6 The effort so far was mainly directed to the provision of some basic curative or ameliorative services. The preventive and developmental aspects which are more effective and economical in the long run did not receive adequate attention. The major thrust in the Fifth Plan with an outlay of Rs. 83 crores was on the expansion of preventive and developmental programmes. During this period, child welfare was given the highest priority. To ensure healthy growth and development of children and reduce infani and maternal mortality rates, the scheme Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) was launched on an experimental basis to provide a package of services consisting of supplementary nutrition, immunisation, health check-up, referral services, nutrition and health education and non-formal education to children in the age-group 0-6 and pregnant and nursing mothers in rural, urban and tribal areas.
28.7 The ICDS scheme was evaluated by the Programme Evaluation Organisation of the Planning Commission. Its findings show that the ICDS projects have over come initial difficulties such as recruitment of staff, training, equipment and supplies but the success of the programme is more in respect of children in the age group of 3 to 6 years than towards children belonging to the age group of 0 to 3 years. The periodic assessment made by the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences have pointed out that the nutrition status and the health standards of the children have remarkably improved in the project areas. the States have pointed out that lack of proper storage facilities, weak supply of food items and incomplete identification of severely mal-nourished cases remain the main limitations of the programme.
28.8 Coordination at the block level among the health, social welfare and block development staff in many States is not effective. Propsr methods and procedures would have to be evolved for achieving effective coordination. Integration in the provision of services at the Anganwadi level is reported to be poor and ineffective. Identification of the target groups based on objective criteria is not being undertaken systematically. Thus the most needy and vulnerable groups have not been able to benefit from this programme.
28.9 In regard to the welfare services for women, priority was given to the needs of women in need or care and protection, women from low income families and women with dependent children and working women. The scheme of condensed course of education and socio-economic programme continued to be expanded. A programme of functional literacy aimed at endowing women with necessary knowledge and skills to perform the functions such as child care, nutrition, health care etc. was introduced in the ICDS project areas. A scheme to assist voluntary organisations in extending hostel facilities for working women was taken up. In addition to the continuing schemes for education and training of the physically handicapped, a scheme of 'Integrated Education' was evolved for placing handicapped children in ordinary schools.
28.10 The role of voluntary organisations in the implementation of various programmes was recognised.
28.11 The selected major physical achievement so far at the Centre has been 281 Family and Child Welfare Projects, later transferred to the States, launching of 200 Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) projects in the rural, tribal and urban areas. Besides, institutional and non-institutional services for nearly 40,000 children in need of care and protection, creches for about 50,000 chi'dren of working mothers, functional literacy for adult women in 200 ICDS projects were provided. About 3901 condensed courses of education benefitting around 84,000 adult women were organised. Socio-economic units numbering 2,942 for providing employment to nearly 35,000 needy women and 196 hostels have been sanctioned for working women. The Central Social Welfare Board has provided grants-in-aid to about 6,000 voluntary organisations. The Central and State Governments have been providing scholarships to the physically handicapped. In nddifwn the latter are offering services in the shape of Creches. balwadis, child guidance centres, training-cum-production centres for women, institutional and non-institutional services for the socially and physically handicapped.
28.12 During the last three decades thus social welfare services have grown both in volume and in range and the outlays have also increased considerably from a mere Rs. 4 crores in the First Plan to Rs. 83 crores in the Fifth Plan. The administrative machinery has also expanded and there is a better awareness of the developmental concept af social welfare, its linkages with other sectors of development and its role in raising the levels of living of the most vulnerable groups. A large number of voluntary organisations are now being assisted to undertake social welfare programmes in different parts of the country. Social legislations have been reviewed and amended to make them more effective, and training, compilation of statistics and research have thrown light on the nature and the dimensions of different problems and deficiencies in implementation.
28.13 In spite of these achievements, certain deficiencies in programme planning and implementation need to be remedied in order that the effectiveness of social welfare schemes can be enhanced. There has been a tendency to depend on schematic patterns in the implementation of the schemes by Government or voluntary organisations leaving little room for flexibility or ability to respond to the lequire-ments and variations in local situations. The involvement of local community in planning and programming has been inadequate and their participation has been more in the nature of minor partners. There has been lack of integration of services at the beneficiaries level.
28.14 The development of welfare services between States has varied considerably and the backward States where the need is greater have suffered both from lower financial allocations and weak administrative machinery which have been further accentuated by frequent transfers at the policy-making levels. The field machinery for supervision has been weak. Absence of professionally trained manpower both at decision-making levels and supervisory levels has affected the quality of services.
28.15 Voluntary organisations have concentrated and developed only in some States and that, too, in selected areas within States for extending certain types of welfare services. The grant-in-aid programmes have not been able to promote and develop voluntary organisations in remote and backward areas with the result that the existing disparities have been aggravated and central funds have flowed more to are^s already having strong administrative machinery and infrastructure to utilise the funds. Women's organisations specially at the local level in rural areas have not been promoted.
28.16 While development of services for children have shown an increase, those for the physically handicapped have remained extremely inadequate and little has been done to bring the handicapped in the mainstream of national development through integrated programmes of education, training and placement.
28.17 The linkages oi social welfare programmes with economic programmes has not materialised except in a very limited way and many economic projects have been launched, particularly in rural areas without proper consideration of the social impact or the social service needs of women and children. There is lack of coordination between the State Governments and the State Social Welfare Boards in programme planning and implementation. Such coordination has assumed urgency in view of Ihe proposed expansion. Monitoring of programme performance of even the important schemes continues to be in terms of financial achievements rather than physical performance related to the objectives of the schemes. The welfare needs of working women, specially from low income groups in urban and rural areas, have not been properly assessed and the package of services needed to uplift them has not been ascertained.
28.18 Social welfare sector is basically supplemental to the needs of the most deprived and the real benefit to them should come from the general sectors. The National Rural Employment Programme and the beneficiary-oriented Integrated Rural Development Programme would contribute substantially in this regard, besides agriculture, animal husbandry, irrigation and other economic activities.
28.19 Social planning should be an integral part of economic planning and every economic project would build into its study and cost the social problems created and their solutions. While developing infrastructural facilities under major sectors like power, transport, industries and irrigation, their benefit to the weakest would be specially noted and correctives provided for where necessary.
28.20 In order not to spread the allocations too thin, areas which are most backward and prone to the handicaps or social disorders will be identified. In these areas, the most needy families will be identified specially from amongst the landless agricultural labour, scheduled castes and scheduled tribes and other sections. Amongst the families, the most vulnerable members, namely, children of the age-group 0-6, pregnant and nursing mothers, the physically handicapped, the aged and infirm would be identified and programmes developed to meet their needs.
28.21 Preventive and developmental services would be given preference over institutional care as the latter is very costly and can Substitute family care only in exceptional cases. Institutional services would be strengthened only selectively by encouraging voluntary agencies to the extent possible,
28.22 The child care services to tlie most vulnerable group 0-6, will be strengthened to provide linkage with other inputs like health and hygiene, education and water supply.
28.23 In women's programmes ths emphasis would be laid on the promotion of employment and education. Institutional care for women in need of care and protection would be provided only when it is unavoidable. A chain of self-supporting activities will be developed to encourage greater employment of women, especially from low income groups in urban and rural areas with a view to developing a total package of services needed by them. Studies and development o'f technology to reduce drudgery or their household work would be supported.
28.24 The physically handicapped will be encouraged to integrate with the normal 'stream of life. Their education, training and employment would be promoted to facilitate integration. Prevention and early detection of physical handicaps will be given importance. Attention will be focussed on the development of multidisciplinary services for treatment of the handicapped.
28.25 The Central Social Welfare Board and its counterparts in the States are entrusted with the responsibility to promote, stimulate and strengthen voluntary action in the field of social welfare. They would play a major role in promoting and strengthening of voluntary effort. The mechanism to coordinate the activities of the State Social Welfare Advisory Boards with those of the State Social Welfare Departments would be reviewed and suitable steps would be taken to_ make its functioning effective. Voluntary institutions will be encouraged to develop programmes in rural and other areas where they have not reached and to build up innovative and flexible programmes to suit the requirements or these areas. They would require technical guidance, financial support and in-service training to improve their managerial efficiency and standard of services. Steps would be taken for the simplification of grant-giving procedures and timely release of funds. In addition all-India/major voluntary organisations working in the field of social welfare will be given grants-in-aid.
28.26 For effective implementation of social welfare programmes, local communities would be fully involved and stimulated for sharing greater responsibility in organisation and supervision. Their participation will also be essential for identifying the beneficiaries. A system of participative decision-making by all beneficiaries at the delivery point may be considered.
28.27 Simple monitoring systems at the State and project levels would be develo'p'ed for effective follow-up of major programmes. Provision for research and evaluation of the programmes will be inbuilt into the programme outlays.
28.28 The administrative machinery needs to be gtrendhened m view of the considerable expansion of services. Induction of professionally trained technical manpower at decision-making and supervisory levels would be considered. Exchange of personnel between extension organisations and research and teaching institutions will be encouraged to stimulate analysis and fresh thinking on various schemes. Training at various levels will be strengthened to equip the workers with the basic skills required for programme management.
28.29 Child welfare will be accorded high priority within the overall frame of social welfare. The scheme 'Integrated Child Development Services' would be the major scheme and would be expanded so as to cover additional 400 blocks raising the total to 600 blocks by the end of Plan Period. Measures will be taken to improve the working of the angan-wadis by strengthening training, improving supervision and providing linkage with health, nutrition and other services and socio-economic programmes for women. Emphasis will be laid on the development of monitoring system at the State and project levels. Special efforts should be made to evolve the local communities and other agencies in all aspects of programme improvement. The existing programmes of creche/day-care centres and balwadis would be inte. grated for providing a package of services and linked with areas of economic activity for women under various sectors of employment. The programmes of balwadis and welfare extension projects would be merged with ICDS projects wherever they coincide. The programme of services for children in need of care and protection will be suitably modified to develop cheaper models with better standards of services. The scheme will be linked with training institutions and socio-economic programmes so that the children could be rehabilitated in the society.
28.30 The scheme of condensed course and vocational training has proved its utility in offering opportunities to the young girls to continue their education. It would be expanded further to prepare girl students for lateral entry to classes V and VIII also. Voluntary Organisations would be given incentives to organise these courses among the most backward tribal and rural areas in order to enable the rirls to take up locally available opportunities under various developmental schemes. Effort would be made to keep proper liaison with the training institutions for Anganwadi workers, ANMs etc. so that women completing the condensed courses could readily be absorbed into various occupations. The scope of vocational training would be enlarged to cover a large number of trades so that the trainees would be able to find ready employment. Areas having low female literacy rates would be identified and selected for organising condensed courses and vocational training.
28.31 The existing socio-economic programmes would be rcoriented so as to make the scheme economically viable and self-sustaining. Emphasis will be placed on the provision of financial assistance in the shape of seed money only rather than giving one time grants as in the past. The proj&cts would be prepared keeping in view the economic viability and involvement of financial institutions so that the projects could be replicated considerably and larger number of women could be helped to secure employment.
28.32 With the progressive change in the economic structure, more and more women are entering the labour force. As both the parents are employed, the children in most of the cases are left to themselves or alternately in the case of older children who are otherwise supposed to be in school. The problem is more acute in cases of migratory labour force where children are brought u'p1 in unhygienic conditions and environment. Therefore, provision will be made for setting up family aid services such as creches balwadis etc. for the children of working mothers, specially in the rural areas, construction work sites, irrigation project sites, etc.
28.33 Voluntary organisations which have played an important part in the uplift of women would be further stimulated through financial and technical support so as to generate a country-wide movement in the implementation of welfare services.
28.34 The scheme of assisting voluntary organisations to provide training in marketable skills to destitute and needy women would be continued with the objective of making them self-reliant. The other socially and physically handicapped women would continue to take advantage of the services provided under 'Social Defence' and 'Welfare of Handicapped'.
Welfare of the blind and the handicapped
28.35 Comprehensive primary health care, distribution of Vitamin 'A' to prevent blindness among children and intensive educational programme for the prevention of accidents would have to be given higher priority. Medical and para-medical health services for pre and postnatal care and immunisation would be expanded in order to prevent several types of deformities. Legal frame-work for the prevention and treatment of accidents as also insurance against them would be suitably provided. Safety regulations would be devised for various categories of occupations and strictly enforced.
28.36 Opportunities for integrated education, vocational training and economic rehabilitation would be created in order to integrate the disabled with the main stream of socio-economic life. The scheme of integrated education (which aims at placing the disabled children in ordinary schools with the help of special teachers, aids and resources, trained teachers, special equipment and books, resource and assessment facility) would be revised and expanded so that the varying needs of different types of handicapped children might be met effectively. Designs of buildings may be suitably modified to facilitate mobility of the handicapped along with the normal persons. Special schools will be discouraged except n'or severely handicapped, who could not be educated with normal children. The scheme of scholarships, both at the Centre and the States, would be expanded further to offer financial support to the students pursuing educational and vocational pursuit's. The existing facilities for the production of text books and literature would be augmented to meet the requirements of expanded educational facilities. The Apprenticeship Training Scheme would be extended to all categories of disabled to substantially expand and develop in-plant training. The Vocational Rehabilitation Centres (VRCs) are presently undertaking evaluation and adjustment training for the rehabilitation of the physically handicapped, primarily for the orthopacdically handicapped. The scheme is proposed to be expanded in scope by imparting 'Skill training' to the physically handicapped and 'providing job oriented experience in close collaboration with local industry to promote employability of the disabled. Towards this end, 'skill training' workshops and train-ing-cum-production centres are proposed to be added to the VXCs.
28.37 Besides educational and vocational training, the functional ability of the disabled would be improved by equipping them with proper aids and appliances. Provision of these aids would enable them to participate in the educational and economic activities in a better way. Simple, durable and inexpensive equipment will be made available to them. For this purpose, the Artificial Limbs Manufacturing Corporation would widen its activities to cover all categories of the handicapped and will develop the required aids and appliances. The National Institute of Prosthetic and Orthotic Training would take lead in the development of rehabilitative techniques and equipment in this field. Training of medical and paraineilical staff in rehabilitation techniques would be provided for. Community health volunteers and teachers would be given training in early detection of handicaps.
28.38. Employment Opportunities for the handicapped would be increased substantially. Schemes linked with vocational training for self-employment would be strengthened and expanded. The reservation of one per cent of vacancies each for the blind, deaf and orthopaedically handicapped in Group 'C' and 'D' 'posts in Central services and in comparable posts in public sector undertakings made by the Government in 1977 would be followed by strengthening the arrangements for monitoring at the Central and State levels, possibilities for reservation of jobs, stalls and counters at Cinema house's, railway stations and other public places as well a's other avenues for open competitive employment, self-employment of various types, would be fully explored to provide larger scope for their absorption. Reservation of a particular percentage for activities under TRYSF.M would be considered to cover the disabled. Under this scheme, special provisions for payment of stipends, appointment of properly trained craftsmen to train the disabled and provision of tools and equipments would be considered. Incentives to employers in the form of tax relief would be needed for the production of special equipment or modifications of the existing equipment, Inter-departmental coordination committees would be set up at Central, State, and other levels to review the programme performance and suggest ways to improve employment and training facilities. Adequate machinery would be created for identifying various types of jobs and training facilities required for filling them.
28.39 Voluntary organisations would be aided for setting up sheltered workshops for the 'severely handicapped to supplement these efforts.
28.40 Mass media would be utilised to give widest publicity to the promotion of preventive, medical, vocational, educational and rehabilitative aspects of various schemes intended for the benefit of the handicapped. Similar services will be extended to rural areas by setting up rural wings at the VRCs. The working of these VRCs would be subjected to peno-dic evaluation.
28.41 The four National Institutes for the Handicapped i.e. one each for the visually handicapped, deaf and dumb orthopaedically handicapped and mentally handicapped would be strengthened and expanded so that they could fulfil tlie tasks envisaged. specially research and training at the national level. In addition, the national associations and research organisations would be encouraged to undertake research into the problems relating to the identification of techniques and adaptations for rehabilitation of various categories of the disabled, training of teachers, development of technical and prosthetic aids and other areas.
28.42 Excessive consumption of narcotics, alcoholic drinks and addictive drugs is dele-terious to health and causes physical and mental damage besides economic ruin to many poor families. Their use would have to be curbed and discouraged through sustained propaganda and community education. Mass media would have to be fully utilised lor propagating knowledge about the ill-affects of addiction of various types and promotion of tem-perence. Voluntary organisations and local bodies would be encouraged to undertake educational work and campaign for disseminating knowledge on the hazards of addiction. Moreover, research studies relating to drug abuse, including consumption of alcohol among students, industrial workers and general community would be supported. Women from those families who are economically affected by drug and alcoholic addiction would be encouraged to take up training and assistance under various socio-economic programmes.
Research and Training
28.43 The National Institute of Social Defence would continue to assist the Central and State Governments m developing and coordinating services in various areas ot social defence such as prevention and control of Juvenile delinquency, beggary, probation etc. and helps in drafting of model legislations and rules in the sphere of prevention of crime and treatment 01 onenders and other connected legislations. It would conduct training courses and research studies in this area.
28.44 The National Institute of Public Cooperation and Child Development which was set up as an apex organisation in me field of public cooperation and child development will review and revise training curricula and teaching methods for various tram-ing courses, particularly in the field of child development. To make the training programme of the Institute more effective, adequate audiovisual aids and training materials would have to be developed. Action would be initiated for setting up extension demonstration units like child guidance clinics, child care centres and nutrition demonstration units for strengthening its training programmes and to develop innovative models. The Institute would make use of the integrated rural development and child development projects for giving field experience to die faculty and the trainees. It will conduct research and evaluation studies which are policy-oriented and related to managerial aspects 01: cmid development and public cooperation. It would provide consultancy services to voluntary organisations in the matter of programme development, management and improvement. The regional field units would have to be strengthened for meeting the training needs of grass-root level functionaries in the States under different projects.
28.45 The four National Institutes for the Disabled would be strengthened to play leading roles in research and training dealing with single and multiple handicaps.
28.46 Identification of the emerging social problems relating to children, women, the handicapped and the aged and assessment of their welfare needs will have to be done in a systematic manner to facilitate formulation of suitable schemes by the Centre and the States. The nature and magnitude of these problems will be ascertained so as to determine priorities, organisational patterns and allocations. Studies relating to the innuence of genetics on various types of deiormities to provide knowledge for early detection would be supported. Evaluation of some of the important programmes like creche-cum-bal-wadis, integrated cnud development services, condensed courses, socio-economic programmes, womens' development corporations, organisational models of different delivery systems, services under the Children Act, integrated education for the handicapped etc. would have to be taken up for improving the overall managerial efficiency of these schemes. There is need to update the statistics on social welfare. Research and evaluation studies would be sponsored on the problems of children, women and physically handicapped. Available research findings will be utilised by implementing agencies to take corrective action, wherever needed.
28.47 In the State sector, child welfare will be given greater attention. Schemes relating to the setting up of creches, balwadis and other non-institutional services would be expanded. These would be linked with other programmes like nutrition, health services, supply of safe drinking water and improvement of environmental sanitation and hygiene. Voluntary organisations will be encouraged further with grants-in-aid .for promoting welfare programmes for the socially and physically handicapped persons. For women in distress and need, diversified schemes of vocational training, assistance for economic rehabilitation, self-employment and socio-economic programmes would be given greater importance. Allocations for scholai ships, integrated education and prosthetic aids for the disabled would be adequately stepped up. Training programmes for imparting skills linked with the assistance for economic rehabilitation will be encouraged. Institutional services would be undertaken and strengthened selectively, preferably by involving voluntary agencies. Various services under Childern's Act like the establishment of Children's Courts, Children's Boards, Remand Homes, Certified Schools, appointment of probation officers etc. would be suitably expanded.
28.48 The provision for Central and Centrally-Sponsored Schemes is Rs. 150 crores vide details in Annexure 28.1. The Plan outlay for the States and Union Territories is Rs. 122 crores vide Annexure 28.2.
Annexure 28.1 Sixth
Plan Outlay : Social Welfare, Central and Centrally Sponsored Schemes.
is being looked after by States.
Annexure 28.2 Sixth
Plan Outlay Social welfareStat and U.T.'s
Includes Rs. 1800 lakhs for Special Employment Schemes.
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